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ORIGINAL handsignierter Brief der russischen Adligen und Ehefrau des letzten russischen Botschafters des Zarenreichs in GRIECHENLAND GRAF ELIM DEMIDOV. Sie ist das Motiv von einem der bedeutendsten Portraits des Malers JOHN SINGER SARGENT.  Original autographed letter signed(ALS) by the COUNTESS DEMIDOV, wife of the last russian empire ambassador of GREECE ELIM. FAMOUS SUBJECT In A PORTRAIT of PAINTER JOHN SINGER SARGENT.

Mehr von DEMIDOFF Sophie JOHN
DEMIDOFF, Sophie, JOHN SINGER SARGENT and Sophia Hilarionovna Vorontsova-Dashkova DEMIDOV:
ORIGINAL handsignierter Brief der russischen Adligen und Ehefrau des letzten russischen Botschafters des Zarenreichs in GRIECHENLAND GRAF ELIM DEMIDOV. Sie ist das Motiv von einem der bedeutendsten Portraits des Malers JOHN SINGER SARGENT. Original autographed letter signed(ALS) by the COUNTESS DEMIDOV, wife of the last russian empire ambassador of GREECE ELIM. FAMOUS SUBJECT In A PORTRAIT of PAINTER JOHN SINGER SARGENT.

Aachen, Phoenix-Antiquariat & Autographen, ohne Jahr.


tadelloser Zustand - mint condition. Count Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato (Russian:; 6 August (20 June, per Ferrand) 1868, Hietzing suburb of Vienna – 28 March 1943, Athens) of the Demidov industrial family, was the Russian Empire's last ambassador to Greece, where he and his wife remained in exile and him as White Russian ambassador. John Singer Sargent (/'s??rd??nt/; Jan mehr lesen ...
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Schlagworte: Autogramm, autograph autographe, unterschrift, signature signiert signed original signe, als, tls, las Elim Demidov was the son of Princess Maria Meshcherskaya and Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato. His mother, descended from indigenous princes of the Finnic peoples of Meshchera and Mordovia, died two days after his birth, whilst Elim's paternal grandmother was the Finnish beauty and philanthropist lady Aurora Stjernvall. His father died when young Elim was just 18 years old. In Saint Petersburg on 18 April 1893 he married Countess Sophia Hilarionovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Novo Temnikovo, 9 August 1870 - Athens, 16 April 1953), by whom he had no issue. Speculating in 1895 about the richest man on earth, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution stated that "the wealth of Elim Demidoff is beyond calculation.".[1] In early 20th century, Emperor Nicholas II sent prince Elim as the Russian ambassador to the Greek court. His Greek connections played a role when he arranged his nephew Prince Paul of Yugoslavia to marry Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark in 1923. He died in 1943, and is buried with his wife at the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity, Athens. Writings Hunting Trips in the Caucasus (1898) After wild sheep in the Altai and Mongolia (1900) Notes "RICHEST MAN ON EARTH". The Atlanta Constitution. 25 March 1895. Retrieved 2008-08-01. External links Media related to Elim Pavlovich Demidov at Wikimedia Commons Princely House Demidov de San Donato Italian nobility Preceded by Pavel Demidov Prince of San Donato 1885-1943 Succeeded by Anatoly Demidov Sargent is a descendant of Epes Sargent, a colonial military leader and jurist. Before John Singer Sargent's birth, his father, FitzWilliam (b. 1820 Gloucester, Massachusetts), was an eye surgeon at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia 1844–1854. After John's older sister died at the age of two, his mother, Mary Newbold Singer (née Singer, 1826–1906), suffered a breakdown, and the couple decided to go abroad to recover.[4] They remained nomadic expatriates for the rest of their lives.[5][6] Although based in Paris, Sargent's parents moved regularly with the seasons to the sea and the mountain resorts in France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. While Mary was pregnant, they stopped in Florence, Tuscany, because of a cholera epidemic. Sargent was born there in 1856. A year later, his sister Mary was born. After her birth, FitzWilliam reluctantly resigned his post in Philadelphia and accepted his wife's request to remain abroad.[7] They lived modestly on a small inheritance and savings, living a quiet life with their children. They generally avoided society and other Americans except for friends in the art world.[8] Four more children were born abroad, of whom only two lived past childhood.[9] Although his father was a patient teacher of basic subjects, young Sargent was a rambunctious child, more interested in outdoor activities than his studies. As his father wrote home, "He is quite a close observer of animated nature."[10] His mother was convinced that traveling around Europe, and visiting museums and churches, would give young Sargent a satisfactory education. Several attempts to have him formally schooled failed, owing mostly to their itinerant life. His mother was a capable amateur artist and his father was a skilled medical illustrator.[11] Early on, she gave him sketchbooks and encouraged drawing excursions. Sargent worked on his drawings, and he enthusiastically copied images from The Illustrated London News of ships and made detailed sketches of landscapes.[12] FitzWilliam had hoped that his son's interest in ships and the sea might lead him toward a naval career. At thirteen, his mother reported that John "sketches quite nicely, & has a remarkably quick and correct eye. If we could afford to give him really good lessons, he would soon be quite a little artist."[13] At the age of thirteen, he received some watercolor lessons from Carl Welsch, a German landscape painter.[14] Although his education was far from complete, Sargent grew up to be a highly literate and cosmopolitan young man, accomplished in art, music, and literature.[15] He was fluent in English, French, Italian, and German. At seventeen, Sargent was described as "willful, curious, determined and strong" (after his mother) yet shy, generous, and modest (after his father).[16] He was well-acquainted with many of the great masters from first hand observation, as he wrote in 1874, "I have learned in Venice to admire Tintoretto immensely and to consider him perhaps second only to Michelangelo and Titian."[17] Training The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston An attempt to study at the Academy of Florence failed, as the school was re-organizing at the time. After returning to Paris from Florence Sargent began his art studies with the young French portraitist Carolus-Duran. Following a meteoric rise, the artist was noted for his bold technique and modern teaching methods; his influence would be pivotal to Sargent during the period from 1874 to 1878.[18] In 1874 Sargent passed on his first attempt the rigorous exam required to gain admission to the École des Beaux-Arts, the premier art school in France. He took drawing classes, which included anatomy and perspective, and gained a silver prize.[18][19] He also spent much time in self-study, drawing in museums and painting in a studio he shared with James Carroll Beckwith. He became both a valuable friend and Sargent's primary connection with the American artists abroad.[20] Sargent also took some lessons from Léon Bonnat.[19] Fanny Watts, Sargent's childhood friend. The first painting at Paris Salon, 1877, Philadelphia Museum of Art Carolus-Duran's atelier was progressive, dispensing with the traditional academic approach, which required careful drawing and underpainting, in favor of the alla prima method of working directly on the canvas with a loaded brush, derived from Diego Velázquez. It was an approach that relied on the proper placement of tones of paint.[21] This approach also permitted spontaneous flourishes of color not bound to an under-drawing. It was markedly different from the traditional atelier of Jean-Léon Gérôme, where Americans Thomas Eakins and Julian Alden Weir had studied. Sargent was the star student in short order. Weir met Sargent in 1874 and noted that Sargent was "one of the most talented fellows I have ever come across; his drawings are like the old masters, and his color is equally fine."[20] Sargent's excellent command of French and his superior talent made him both popular and admired. Through his friendship with Paul César Helleu, Sargent would meet giants of the art world, including Degas, Rodin, Monet, and Whistler. An Out-of-Doors Study, 1889, depicting Paul César Helleu sketching with his wife Alice Guérin. The Brooklyn Museum, New York Sargent's early enthusiasm was for landscapes, not portraiture, as evidenced by his voluminous sketches full of mountains, seascapes, and buildings.[22] Carolus-Duran's expertise in portraiture finally influenced Sargent in that direction. Commissions for history paintings were still considered more prestigious, but were much harder to get. Portrait painting, on the other hand, was the best way of promoting an art career, getting exhibited in the Salon, and gaining commissions to earn a livelihood. Sargent's first major portrait was of his friend Fanny Watts in 1877, and was also his first Salon admission. Its particularly well-executed pose drew attention.[22] His second salon entry was the Oyster Gatherers of Cançale, an impressionistic painting of which he made two copies, one of which he sent back to the United States, and both received warm reviews.[23] Early career El Jaleo (Spanish Dancer), c. 1879–82, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum In 1879, at the age of 23, Sargent painted a portrait of teacher Carolus-Duran; the virtuoso effort met with public approval, and announced the direction his mature work would take. Its showing at the Paris Salon was both a tribute to his teacher and an advertisement for portrait commissions.[24] Of Sargent's early work, Henry James wrote that the artist offered "the slightly 'uncanny' spectacle of a talent which on the very threshold of its career has nothing more to learn."[25] After leaving Carolus-Duran's atelier, Sargent visited Spain. There he studied the paintings of Velázquez with a passion, absorbing the master's technique, and in his travels gathered ideas for future works.[26] He was entranced with Spanish music and dance. The trip also re-awakened his own talent for music (which was nearly equal to his artistic talent), and which found visual expression in his early masterpiece El Jaleo (1882). Music would continue to play a major part in his social life as well, as he was a skillful accompanist of both amateur and professional musicians. Sargent became a strong advocate for modern composers, especially Gabriel Fauré.[27] Trips to Italy provided sketches and ideas for several Venetian street scenes genre paintings, which effectively captured gestures and postures he would find useful in later portraiture.[28] Upon his return to Paris, Sargent quickly received several portrait commissions. His career was launched. He immediately demonstrated the concentration and stamina that enabled him to paint with workman-like steadiness for the next twenty-five years. He filled in the gaps between commissions with many non-commissioned portraits of friends and colleagues. His fine manners, perfect French, and great skill made him a standout among the newer portraitists, and his fame quickly spread. He confidently set high prices and turned down unsatisfactory sitters.[29] He mentored his friend Emil Fuchs who was learning to paint portraits in oils.[30] Works See also: List of works by John Singer Sargent Portraits Nineteenth century portraits John Singer Sargent in his studio with Portrait of Madame X, c. 1885 In the early 1880s Sargent regularly exhibited portraits at the Salon, and these were mostly full-length portrayals of women, such as Madame Edouard Pailleron (1880) (done en plein-air) and Madame Ramón Subercaseaux (1881). He continued to receive positive critical notice.[31] Sargent's best portraits reveal the individuality and personality of the sitters; his most ardent admirers think he is matched in this only by Velázquez, who was one of Sargent's great influences. The Spanish master's spell is apparent in Sargent's The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, a haunting interior that echoes Velázquez's Las Meninas.[32] As in many of his early portraits, Sargent confidently tries different approaches with each new challenge, here employing both unusual composition and lighting to striking effect. One of his most widely exhibited and best loved works of the 1880s was The Lady with the Rose (1882), a portrait of Charlotte Burckhardt, a close friend and possible romantic attachment.[33] Portrait of Madame X 1884 His most controversial work, Portrait of Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau) (1884) is now considered one of his best works, and was the artist's personal favorite; he stated in 1915, "I suppose it is the best thing I have done."[34] When unveiled in Paris at the 1884 Salon, it aroused such a negative reaction that it likely prompted Sargent's move to London. Sargent's self-confidence had led him to attempt a risque experiment in portraiture—but this time it unexpectedly back-fired.[35] The painting was not commissioned by her and he pursued her for the opportunity, quite unlike most of his portrait work where clients sought him out. Sargent wrote to a common acquaintance: I have a great desire to paint her portrait and have reason to think she would allow it and is waiting for someone to propose this homage to her beauty. ...you might tell her that I am a man of prodigious talent.[36] It took well over a year to complete the painting.[37] The first version of the portrait of Madame Gautreau, with the famously plunging neckline, white-powdered skin, and arrogantly cocked head, featured an intentionally suggestive off-the-shoulder dress strap, on her right side only, which made the overall effect more daring and sensual.[38] Sargent repainted the strap to its expected over-the-shoulder position to try to dampen the furor, but the damage had been done. French commissions dried up and he told his friend Edmund Gosse in 1885 that he contemplated giving up painting for music or business.[39] Writing of the reaction of visitors, Judith Gautier observed: Is it a woman? a chimera, the figure of a unicorn rearing as on a heraldic coat of arms or perhaps the work of some oriental decorative artist to whom the human form is forbidden and who, wishing to be reminded of woman, has drawn the delicious arabesque? No, it is none of these things, but rather the precise image of a modern woman scrupulously drawn by a painter who is a master of his art."[40] Prior to the Madame X scandal of 1884, Sargent had painted exotic beauties such as Rosina Ferrara of Capri, and the Spanish expatriate model Carmela Bertagna, but the earlier pictures had not been intended for broad public reception. Sargent kept the painting prominently displayed in his London studio until he sold it to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1916 after moving to the United States, and a few months after Gautreau's death. Before arriving in England, Sargent began sending paintings for exhibition at the Royal Academy. These included the portraits of Dr. Pozzi at Home (1881), a flamboyant essay in red and his first full-length male portrait, and the more traditional Mrs. Henry White (1883). The ensuing portrait commissions encouraged Sargent to complete his move to London in 1886. Notwithstanding the Madame X scandal, he had considered moving to London as early as 1882; he had been urged to do so repeatedly by his new friend, the novelist Henry James. In retrospect his transfer to London may be seen to have been inevitable.[41] English critics were not warm at first, faulting Sargent for his "clever" "Frenchified" handling of paint. One reviewer seeing his portrait of Mrs. Henry White described his technique as "hard" and "almost metallic" with "no taste in expression, air, or modeling." With help from Mrs. White, however, Sargent soon gained the admiration of English patrons and critics.[42] Henry James also gave the artist "a push to the best of my ability."[43] Sargent spent much time painting outdoors in the English countryside when not in his studio. On a visit to Monet at Giverny in 1885, Sargent painted one of his most Impressionistic portraits, of Monet at work painting outdoors with his new bride nearby. Sargent is usually not thought of as an Impressionist painter, but he sometimes used impressionistic techniques to great effect. His Claude Monet Painting at the Edge of a Wood is rendered in his own version of the impressionist style. In the 1880s, he attended the Impressionist exhibitions and he began to paint outdoors in the plein-air manner after that visit to Monet. Sargent purchased four Monet works for his personal collection during that time.[44] Sargent was similarly inspired to do a portrait of his artist friend Paul César Helleu, also painting outdoors with his wife by his side. A photograph very similar to the painting suggests that Sargent occasionally used photography as an aid to composition.[45] Through Helleu, Sargent met and painted the famed French sculptor Auguste Rodin in 1884, a rather somber portrait reminiscent of works by Thomas Eakins.[46] Although the British critics classified Sargent in the Impressionist camp, the French Impressionists thought otherwise. As Monet later stated, "He is not an Impressionist in the sense that we use the word, he is too much under the influence of Carolus-Duran."[47] Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1893, National Galleries of Scotland Sargent's first major success at the Royal Academy came in 1887, with the enthusiastic response to Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, a large piece, painted on site, of two young girls lighting lanterns in an English garden in Broadway in the Cotswolds. The painting was immediately purchased by the Tate Gallery. His first trip to New York and Boston as a professional artist in 1887–88 produced over twenty important commissions, including portraits of Isabella Stewart Gardner, the famed Boston art patron. His portrait of Mrs. Adrian Iselin, wife of a New York businessman, revealed her character in one of his most insightful works. In Boston, Sargent was honored with his first solo exhibition, which presented twenty-two of his paintings.[48] Here he became friends with painter Dennis Miller Bunker who traveled to England in the summer of 1888 to paint with him en plein air and is the subject of Sargents painting 'Dennis Miller Bunker Painting at Calcot' 1888. Back in London, Sargent was quickly busy again. His working methods were by then well-established, following many of the steps employed by other master portrait painters before him. After securing a commission through negotiations which he carried out, Sargent would visit the client's home to see where the painting was to hang. He would often review a client's wardrobe to pick suitable attire. Some portraits were done in the client's home, but more often in his studio, which was well-stocked with furniture and background materials he chose for proper effect.[49] He usually required eight to ten sittings from his clients, although he would try to capture the face in one sitting. He usually kept up pleasant conversation and sometimes he would take a break and play the piano for his sitter. Sargent seldom used pencil or oil sketches, and instead laid down oil paint directly.[50] Finally, he would select an appropriate frame. Sargent had no assistants; he handled all the tasks, such as preparing his canvases, varnishing the painting, arranging for photography, shipping, and documentation. He commanded about $5,000 per portrait, or about $130,000 in current dollars.[51] Some American clients traveled to London at their own expense to have Sargent paint their portrait. Morning Walk, 1888, private collection Around 1890, Sargent painted two daring non-commissioned portraits as show pieces—one of actress Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth and one of the popular Spanish dancer La Carmencita.[52] Sargent was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and was made a full member three years later. In the 1890s, he averaged fourteen portrait commissions per year, none more beautiful than the genteel Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1892. His portrait of Mrs. Hugh Hammersley (Mrs. Hugh Hammersley, 1892) was equally well received for its lively depiction of one of London's most notable hostesses. As a portrait painter in the grand manner, Sargent had unmatched success; he portrayed subjects who were at once ennobled and often possessed of nervous energy. Sargent was referred to as "the Van Dyck of our times."[53] Although Sargent was an American expatriate, he returned to the United States many times, often to answer the demand for commissioned portraits. Sargent exhibited nine of his portraits in the Palace of Fine Arts at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.[54] Sargent painted a series of three portraits of Robert Louis Stevenson. The second, Portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson and his Wife (1885), was one of his best known.[55] He also completed portraits of two U.S. presidents: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Asher Wertheimer, a wealthy Jewish art dealer living in London, commissioned from Sargent a series of a dozen portraits of his family, the artist's largest commission from a single patron.[56] The Wertheimer portraits reveal a pleasant familiarity between the artist and his subjects. Wertheimer bequeathed most of the paintings to the National Gallery.[57] In 1888, Sargent released his portrait of Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, great-granddaughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt.[58] Many of his most important works are in museums in the United States. In 1897, a friend sponsored a famous portrait in oil of Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Phelps Stokes, by Sargent, as a wedding gift.[59][60] Twentieth century portraits Sargent emphasized Almina Wertheimer's exotic beauty in 1908 by dressing her en turquerie. By 1900, Sargent was at the height of his fame. Cartoonist Max Beerbohm completed one of his seventeen caricatures of Sargent, making well-known to the public the artist's paunchy physique.[61][62] Although only in his forties, Sargent began to travel more and to devote relatively less time to portrait painting. His An Interior in Venice (1900), a portrait of four members of the Curtis family in their elegant palatial home, Palazzo Barbaro, was a resounding success. But, Whistler did not approve of the looseness of Sargent's brushwork, which he summed up as "smudge everywhere."[63] One of Sargent's last major portraits in his bravura style was that of Lord Ribblesdale, in 1902, finely attired in an elegant hunting uniform. Between 1900 and 1907, Sargent continued his high productivity, which included, in addition to dozens of oil portraits, hundreds of portrait drawings at about $400 each.[64] In 1907, at the age of fifty-one, Sargent officially closed his studio. Relieved, he stated, "Painting a portrait would be quite amusing if one were not forced to talk while working…What a nuisance having to entertain the sitter and to look happy when one feels wretched."[65] In that same year, Sargent painted his modest and serious self-portrait, his last, for the celebrated self-portrait collection of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.[66] As Sargent wearied of portraiture he pursued architectural and landscapes subjects . During a visit to Rome in 1906 Sargent made an oil painting and several pencil sketches of the exterior staircase and balustrade in front of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus, now the church of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. The double staircase built in 1654 is the design of architect and sculptor Orazio Torriani (fl.1602–1657). In 1907 he wrote: "I did in Rome a study of a magnificent curved staircase and balustrade, leading to a grand facade that would reduce a millionaire to a worm...."[67] The painting now hangs at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University and the pencil sketches are in the collection of the Harvard University art collection of the Fogg Museum.[68] Sargent later used the architectural features of this stair and balustrade in a portrait of Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University from 1869 to 1909.[69] Sargent's fame was still considerable and museums eagerly bought his works. That year he declined a knighthood and decided instead to keep his American citizenship. From 1907[70] on, Sargent largely forsook portrait painting and focused on landscapes in his later years. He made numerous visits to the United States in the last decade of his life, including a stay of two full years from 1915 to 1917.[71] In April 1917 Sargent was visiting the Miami estate of James Deering and was invited to cruise the Florida Keys with James and his brother Charles Deering aboard James' yacht Nepenthe. Sargent was much more interested in the "mine of sketching" that was the estate, not at all interested in fishing, and made the cruise "reluctantly," doing some watercolor sketches (including Derelicts, 1917).[72] By the time Sargent finished his portrait of John D. Rockefeller in 1917, most critics began to consign him to the masters of the past, "a brilliant ambassador between his patrons and posterity." Modernists treated him more harshly, considering him completely out of touch with the reality of American life and with emerging artistic trends including Cubism and Futurism.[73] Sargent quietly accepted the criticism, but refused to alter his negative opinions of modern art. He retorted, "Ingres, Raphael and El Greco, these are now my admirations, these are what I like."[74] In 1925, shortly before he died, Sargent painted his last oil portrait, a canvas of Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston. The painting was purchased in 1936 by the Currier Museum of Art, where it is on display.[75] Watercolors Gondoliers' Siesta, c. 1904, watercolor During Sargent's long career, he painted more than 2,000 watercolors, roving from the English countryside to Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida. Each destination offered pictorial stimulation and treasure. Even at his leisure, in escaping the pressures of the portrait studio, he painted with restless intensity, often painting from morning until night. His hundreds of watercolors of Venice are especially notable, many done from the perspective of a gondola. His colors were sometimes extremely vivid and as one reviewer noted, "Everything is given with the intensity of a dream."[76] In the Middle East and North Africa Sargent painted Bedouins, goatherds, and fisherman. In the last decade of his life, he produced many watercolors in Maine, Florida, and in the American West, of fauna, flora, and native peoples. Muddy Alligators, 1917, watercolor With his watercolors, Sargent was able to indulge his earliest artistic inclinations for nature, architecture, exotic peoples, and noble mountain landscapes. And it is in some of his late works where one senses Sargent painting most purely for himself. His watercolors were executed with a joyful fluidness. He also painted extensively family, friends, gardens, and fountains. In watercolors, he playfully portrayed his friends and family dressed in Orientalist costume, relaxing in brightly lit landscapes that allowed for a more vivid palette and experimental handling than did his commissions (The Chess Game, 1906).[77] His first major solo exhibit of watercolor works was at the Carfax Gallery in London in 1905.[78] In 1909, he exhibited eighty-six watercolors in New York City, eighty-three of which were bought by the Brooklyn Museum.[79] Evan Charteris wrote in 1927: To live with Sargent's water-colours is to live with sunshine captured and held, with the luster of a bright and legible world, 'the refluent shade' and 'the Ambient ardours of the noon.'[80] Although not generally accorded the critical respect given Winslow Homer, perhaps America's greatest watercolorist, scholarship has revealed that Sargent was fluent in the entire range of opaque and transparent watercolor technique, including the methods used by Homer.[81] Theodore Roosevelt, 1903. Sargent had Roosevelt hold his pose when he turned around with impatience to address the artist while they were walking around the White House surveying possible locations for the portrait.[82] Other work As a concession to the insatiable demand of wealthy patrons for portraits, Sargent dashed off hundreds of rapid charcoal portrait sketches, which he called "Mugs". Forty-six of these, spanning the years 1890–1916, were exhibited at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters in 1916.[83] All of Sargent's murals are to be found in the Boston/Cambridge area. They are in the Boston Public Library, the Museum of Fine Arts, and Harvard's Widener Library. Sargent's largest scale works are the mural decorations that grace the Boston Public Library depicting the history of religion and the gods of polytheism.[84] They were attached to the walls of the library by means of marouflage. He worked on the cycle for almost thirty years but never completed the final mural. Sargent drew on his extensive travels and museum visits to create a dense art historial melange. The murals were restored in 2003–2004.[85] Sargent worked on the murals from 1895 through 1919; they were intended to show religion's (and society's) progress, from pagan superstition up through the ascension of Christianity, concluding with a painting depicting Jesus delivering the Sermon on the Mount. But Sargent's paintings of "The Church" and "The Synagogue", installed in late 1919, inspired a debate about whether the artist had represented Judaism in a stereotypical, or even an anti-Semitic, manner.[86] Drawing upon iconography that was used in medieval paintings, Sargent portrayed Judaism and the synagogue as a blind, ugly hag, and Christianity and the church as a lovely, and radiant young woman. He also failed to understand how these representations might be problematic for the Jews of Boston; he was both surprised and hurt when the paintings were criticized.[87] The paintings were objectionable to Boston Jews since they seemed to show Judaism defeated, and Christianity triumphant.[88] The Boston newspapers also followed the controversy, noting that while many found the paintings offensive, not everyone was in agreement. In the end, Sargent abandoned his plan to finish the murals, and the controversy eventually died down. Upon his return to England in 1918 after a visit to the United States, Sargent was commissioned as a war artist by the British Ministry of Information. In his large painting Gassed and in many watercolors, he depicted scenes from the Great War.[89] Relationships and personal life Rosina, 1878, depicting Rosina Ferrara Man Standing, Hands on Head in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, ca. 1890–1910 Sargent was a lifelong bachelor with a wide circle of friends. Biographers once portrayed him as staid and reticent.[90] However recent scholarship has suggested that he was a private, complex and passionate man with a homosexual identity that shaped his art.[91][92] This view is based on his friends and associations; the overall alluring remoteness of his portraits; the way his works challenge 19th-century notions of gender difference;[93] his erotic and previously ignored male nudes; and some sensitive and erotic male portraits, including those of Thomas E. McKeller, Bartholomy Maganosco, Olimpio Fusco,[94] and that of the handsome aristocratic artist Albert de Belleroche, which hung in his Chelsea dining room.[95][96] Sargent had a long and intense romantic friendship with Belleroche, whom he met in 1882, and who later went on to marry: a surviving drawing hints that Sargent may have used him as a model for Madame X.[92][97] It has been suggested that Sargent's reputation in the 1890s as "the painter of the Jews" may have been due to his empathy with, and complicit enjoyment of their mutual social otherness.[91] One such client, Betty Wertheimer, wrote that when in Venice Sargent "was only interested in the Venetian gondoliers".[91][98] The painter Jacques-Émile Blanche, who was one of his early sitters, said after Sargent's death that his sex life "was notorious in Paris, and in Venice, positively scandalous. He was a frenzied bugger."[99] The truth of this may never be established. There were many friendships with women: it has been suggested that those with his sitters Rosina Ferrara, Amélie Gautreau, and Judith Gautier may have tipped into infatuation.[100] As a young man, Sargent also courted for a time Louise Burkhardt, the model for Lady with the Rose.[101] Sargent's friends and supporters included Henry James, Isabella Stewart Gardner (who commissioned and purchased works from Sargent, and sought his advice on other acquisitions),[102] Edward VII,[103] and Paul César Helleu. His associations also included Prince Edmond de Polignac and Count Robert de Montesquiou. Other artists Sargent associated with were Dennis Miller Bunker, James Carroll Beckwith, Edwin Austin Abbey and John Elliott (who also worked on the Boston Public Library murals), Francis David Millet and Claude Monet, whom Sargent painted. Between 1905 and 1914, Sargent's frequent traveling companions were the married artist couple Wilfrid de Glehn and Jane Emmet de Glehn. The trio would often spend summers in France, Spain or Italy and all three would depict one another in their paintings during their travels.[104] Critical assessment Arsène Vigeant, 1885, Musées de Metz In a time when the art world focused, in turn, on Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism, Sargent practiced his own form of Realism, which made brilliant references to Velázquez, Van Dyck, and Gainsborough. His seemingly effortless facility for paraphrasing the masters in a contemporary fashion led to a stream of commissioned portraits of remarkable virtuosity (Arsène Vigeant, 1885, Musées de Metz; Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Newton Phelps-Stokes, 1897, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) and earned Sargent the moniker, "the Van Dyck of our times."[105] Still, during his life his work engendered negative responses from some of his colleagues: Camille Pissarro wrote "he is not an enthusiast but rather an adroit performer,"[106] and Walter Sickert published a satirical turn under the heading "Sargentolatry."[79] By the time of his death he was dismissed as an anachronism, a relic of the Gilded Age and out of step with the artistic sentiments of post-World War I Europe. Elizabeth Prettejohn suggests that the decline of Sargent's reputation was due partly to the rise of anti-Semitism, and the resultant intolerance of 'celebrations of Jewish prosperity.'[107] It has been suggested that the exotic qualities[108] inherent in his work appealed to the sympathies of the Jewish clients whom he painted from the 1890s on. Nowhere is this more apparent than in his portrait Almina, Daughter of Asher Wertheimer (1908), in which the subject is seen wearing a Persian costume, a pearl encrusted turban, and strumming an Indian tambura, accoutrements all meant to convey sensuality and mystery. If Sargent used this portrait to explore issues of sexuality and identity, it seems to have met with the satisfaction of the subject's father, Asher Wertheimer, a wealthy Jewish art dealer.[56] Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood, 1885, the Tate, London Foremost of Sargent's detractors was the influential English art critic Roger Fry, of the Bloomsbury Group, who at the 1926 Sargent retrospective in London dismissed Sargent's work as lacking aesthetic quality: "Wonderful indeed, but most wonderful that this wonderful performance should ever have been confused with that of an artist."[107] And, in the 1930s, Lewis Mumford led a chorus of the severest critics: "Sargent remained to the end an illustrator ... the most adroit appearance of workmanship, the most dashing eye for effect, cannot conceal the essential emptiness of Sargent's mind, or the contemptuous and cynical superficiality of a certain part of his execution." Part of Sargent's devaluation is also attributed to his expatriate life, which made him seem less American at a time when "authentic" socially conscious American art, as exemplified by the Stieglitz circle and by the Ashcan School, was on the ascent.[109] After such a long period of critical disfavor, Sargent's reputation has increased steadily since the 1950s.[3] In the 1960s, a revival of Victorian art and new scholarship directed at Sargent strengthened his reputation.[110] Sargent has been the subject of large-scale exhibitions in major museums, including a retrospective exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1986, and a major 1999 traveling show that exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the National Gallery of Art Washington, and the National Gallery, London. In 1986, Andy Warhol commented to Sargent scholar Trevor Fairbrother that Sargent "made everybody look glamorous. Taller. Thinner. But they all have mood, every one of them has a different mood."[111][112] In a TIME magazine article from the 1980s, critic Robert Hughes praised Sargent as "the unrivaled recorder of male power and female beauty in a day that, like ours, paid excessive court to both."[113] Later life Sargent's grave in Brookwood Cemetery, Surrey In 1922 Sargent co-founded New York City's Grand Central Art Galleries together with Edmund Greacen, Walter Leighton Clark, and others.[114] Sargent actively participated in the Grand Central Art Galleries and their academy, the Grand Central School of Art, until his death in 1925. The Galleries held a major retrospective exhibit of Sargent's work in 1924.[115] He then returned to England, where he died on April 14, 1925 of heart disease.[115] Sargent is interred in Brookwood Cemetery near Woking, Surrey.[116] Memorial exhibitions of Sargent's work were held in Boston in 1925, and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Royal Academy and Tate Gallery in London in 1926.[117] The Grand Central Art Galleries also organized a posthumous exhibition in 1928 of previously unseen sketches and drawings from throughout his career.[118] Sales Portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson and his Wife was sold in 2004 for US$8.8 million[119] and is located at Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art at Bentonville, Arkansas. In December 2004, Group with Parasols (A Siesta) (1905) sold for US$23.5 million, nearly double the Sotheby's estimate of $12 million. The previous highest price for a Sargent painting was US$11 million.[120] References "While his art matched to the spirit of the age, Sargent came into his own in the 1890s as the leading portrait painter of his generation". Ormond, p. 34, 1998. "At the time of the Wertheimer commission Sargent was the most celebrated, sought-after and expensive portrait painter in the world". New Orleans Museum of Art Archived 2008-04-20 at the Wayback Machine. Franz Schulze, "J. S. Sargent, Partly Great." Art in America (1980) 68#2 pp 90-96 "John Singer Sargent". Biography. Retrieved 25 September 2018. Stanley Olson, John Singer Sargent: His Portrait, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986, p. 1, ISBN 0-312-44456-7 Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Sargent, Paul Dudley". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Olson, p. 2. Olson, p. 4. Trevor Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994, p. 11, ISBN 0-8109-3833-2 Olson, p. 9. Olson, p. 10. Olson, p. 15. Olson, p. 18. Carl Little, The Watercolors of John Singer Sargent, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, p. 7, ISBN 0-520-21969-4 Olson, p. 23 Olson, p. 27. Olson, p. 29. Fairbrother, p. 13. Little, p. 7. Olson, p. 46. Elizabeth Prettejohn: Interpreting Sargent, p. 9. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. Olson, p. 55. Fairbrother, p. 16. Prettejohn, p. 14, 1998. Prettejohn, p. 13, 1998. Olson, p. 70. Olson, p. 73. Fairbrother, p. 33. Olson, p. 80. "Emil Fuchs papers 1880-1931" (PDF). Brooklyn Museum. Ormond, Richard: "Sargent's Art", John Singer Sargent, pp. 25–7. Tate Gallery, 1998. Ormond, p. 27, 1998. Fairbrother, p. 40. Richard Ormand and Elaine Kilmurray, Sargent: The Early Portraits, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998, p. 114, ISBN 0-300-07245-7 Fairbrother, p. 45. Olson, p. 102. Ormand and Kilmurray, p. 113. Fairbrother, p. 47. Fairbrother, p. 55. Cited in Ormond, pp. 27–8, 1998. Ormond, p. 28, 1998. Fairbrother, p. 43. Olson, p. 107. Fairbrother, p. 61. Olson, plate XVIII Ormand and Kilmurray, p. 151. Fairbrother, p. 68. Fairbrother, pp. 70–2. Olson, p. 223. Ormand and Kilmurray, p. xxiii. Fairbrother, p. 76, price updated by CPI calculator to 2008 at data.bls.gov Fairbrother, p. 79. Ormond, pp. 28–35, 1998. John Singer Sargent at the World's Columbian Exposition, World's Fair Chicago 1893 "Robert Louis Stevenson and His Wife". JSS Virtual Gallery. Retrieved July 27, 2017. Ormond, pp. 169–171, 1998. Ormond, p. 148, 1998. Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas "John Singer Sargent 1856–1925. Mr and Mrs IN Phelps Stokes 1897, Oil on canvas". Studios and portraits - Queensland Art Gallery - Gallery of Modern Art. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2011. "Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Phelps Stokes, 1897, by John Singer Sargent (American, 1856–1925). Oil on canvas". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2011. Fairbrother, p. 97. Little, p. 12. Fairbrother, p. 101. Fairbrother, p. 118. Olson, p. 227. Fairbrother, p. 124. Eustace, Katharine. Twentieth C. Paintings in Asholeum Museum. pp. 17–19. "Sketch of a Balustrade, San Domenico e Sisto, Rome". "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2013-02-24. "In the history of portraiture there is no other instance of a major figure abandoning his profession and shutting up shop in such a peremptory way." Ormond, Page 38, 1998. Kilmurray, Elaine: "Chronology of Travels", Sargent Abroad, page 242. Abbeville Press, 1997. Madsen, Annelise K.; Ormond, Richard; Broadway, Mary (2018). John Singer Sargent & Chicago's Gilded Age. Chicago, Illinois: The Art Institute of Chicago. p. 112. ISBN 9780300232974. LCCN 2017056054. Retrieved 2 September 2018. Fairbrother, p. 131. Fairbrother, p. 133. "EmbARK Web Kiosk". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Little, p. 11. Prettejohn, pp. 66-69, 1998. Fairbrother, p. 148. Ormond, p. 276, 1998. Little, p. 110. Little, p. 17. http://www.jssgallery.org/Paintings/President_Theodore_Roosevelt.htm#Pic http://www.jssgallery.org/Resources/Exhibitions/1916_Royal_Society_of_Portrait_Painters.htm The Sargent Murals at the Boston Public Library Archived 2005-06-02 at the Wayback Machine. John Singer Sargent's "Triumph of Religion" at the Boston Public Library: Creation and Restoration, Ed. Narayan Khandekar, Gianfranco Pocobene, and Kate Smith, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Art Museum, and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. "New Painting at Public Library Stirs Jews to Vigorous Protest". Donald Hendersonsyn The Boston Globe, November 9, 1919, p. 48. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2012-07-31. "Jenna Weissman Joselit: Restoring the 'American Sistine Chapel'... How Sargent's 'Synagogue' Provoked a Nation – Forward.com". The Jewish Daily Forward. 4 August 2010. Little, p. 135. Olson, Stanley John Singer Sargent: His Portrait, St Martin's Griffin, 2001, New York, ISBN 0312275285, p199 Failing, Patricia, The Hidden Sargent,Art News, May 2001, http://www.artnews.com/2001/05/01/the-hidden-sargent/ Davis, Deborah Strapless: John Singer Sargent And The Fall Of Madam X, Tarcher, 2003, ASIN: B015QKNWS0, pp254 Moss, Dorothy John Singer Sargent, 'Madame X' and 'Baby Millbank, The Burlington Magazine, May 2001, No 1178-Vol 143 Little, p. 141. Tóibín, Colm The secret life of John Singer Sargent,The Telegraph, 15 February 2015 Ormond, Richard; Kilmurray, Elaine "John Singer Sargent, Complete Paintings, Volume 1 Yale University Press, 1998, p88 Diliberto, Gioia Sargent's Muses: Was Madam X Actually a Mister?, New York Times, May 18, 2003 Fairbrother, Trevor John Singer Sargent: The Sensualist, Yale University Press, 2000, ISBN 0300087446, p220 Note 7 Fairbrother, Trevor John Singer Sargent: The Sensualist (2001) ISBN 0-300-08744-6, p. 139, Note 4. Davis, Deborah Strapless: John Singer Sargent And The Fall Of Madam X, Tarcher, 2003, ASIN: B015QKNWS0, 143-145 Olson, Stanley John Singer Sargent, His Portrait, St Martins Press, 1986, ISBN 0312444567, p. 88. Kilmurray, Elaine: "Traveling Companions", Sargent Abroad, pp. 57–8. Abbeville Press, 1997. Kilmurray: "Chronology of Travels", p. 240, 1997. The Fountain, Villa Torlonia, Frascati, Italy Archived 2012-07-10 at the Wayback Machine. This from Auguste Rodin, upon seeing The Misses Hunter in 1902. Ormond and Kilmurray, John Singer Sargent: The Early Portraits, p. 150. Yale University, 1998. Rewald, John: Camille Pissarro: Letters to his Son Lucien, p. 183. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Prettejohn, p. 73, 1998. Sargent's friend Vernon Lee referred to the artist's "outspoken love of the exotic...the unavowed love of rare kinds of beauty, for incredible types of elegance." Charteris, Evan: John Sargent, p. 252. London and New York, 1927. Fairbrother, p. 140. Fairbrother, p. 141. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-07-31. See Trevor Fairbrother," Warhol Meets Sargent at Whitney," Arts Magazine 6 (February 1987): 64–71. Fairbrother, p. 145. "Painters and Sculptors' Gallery Association to Begin Work", New York Times, December 19, 1922. Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 34, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0. "John Singer Sargent". Necropolis Notables. The Brookwood Cemetery Society. Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2007-02-23. "Tate - Website undergoing maintenance". Taken from Sargent's Sketchbook, The New York Times, February 12, 1928; Sargent Sketches in New Exhibit Here, The New York Times, February 14, 1928. "Sotheby's: Fine Art Auctions & Private Sales for Contemporary, Modern & Impressionist, Old Master Paintings, Jewellery, Watches, Wine, Decorative Arts, Asian Art & more - Sotheby's". Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016. The Age, December 3, 2004. Sources Davis, Deborah. Sargent's Women, pages 11–23. Adelson Galleries, Inc., 2003. ISBN 0-9741621-0-8 Fairbrother, Trevor: John Singer Sargent: The Sensualist (2001), ISBN 0-300-08744-6, Page 139, Note 4. Joselit, Jenna Weissman. "Restoring the American 'Sistine Chapel' " The Forward, 13 August 2010. Kilmurray, Elaine: Sargent Abroad. Abbeville Press, 1997. Pages 57–8, 242. Lehmann-Barclay, Lucie. "Public Art, Private Prejudice." Christian Science Monitor, 7 January 2005, p. 11. "New Painting At Boston Public Library Stirs Jews to Vigorous Protest." Boston Globe, 9 November 1919, p. 48. Noël, Benoît et Jean Hournon: Portrait de Madame X in Parisiana – la Capitale des arts au XIXème siècle, Les Presses Franciliennes, Paris, 2006. pp. 100–105. Ormond, Richard: "Sargent's Art" in John Singer Sargent, pp. 25–7. Tate Gallery, 1998. Prettejohn, Elizabeth: Interpreting Sargent, page 9. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. Promey, Sally M. "John Singer Sargent's Triumph of Religion at the Boston Public Library." http://www.bpl.org/central/sargenttriumph.htm Rewald, John: Camille Pissarro: Letters to his Son Lucien, page 183. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Further reading Herdrich, Stephanie L; Weinberg, H. Barbara (2000). American drawings and watercolors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: John Singer Sargent. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870999524. Adelson, Warren; Gerdts, William H.; Kilmurray, Elaine; Zorzi, Rosella Mamoli; Ormond, Richard; Oustinoff, Elizabeth (2006). Sargent’s Venice. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300117172. Video John Singer Sargent: Secrets of Composition and Design, Jason Alster, 2013 . Discusses use of Gestalt and design techniques in Sargent's paintings. Rubin, S (1991). [ John Singer Sargent's Alpine Sketchbooks: a young artist's perspective]. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780300193787. Corsano, Karen; Williman, Daniel (2014). John Singer Sargent And His Muse: Painting Love and Loss. Maryland: Rowman & Litchfield. ISBN 9781442230507. Thomas, John (2017). Redemption Achieved. John Singer Sargent's Crucifixion of Christ with Adam and Eve and its place in his work. Wolverhampton: Twin Books. ISBN 9780993478116. Capó, Jr, Julio (2017). Welcome to Fairyland: Queer Miami before 1940. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 1469635208. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Singer Sargent. Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Singer Sargent Wikisource has original works written by or about: John Singer Sargent 113 paintings by or after John Singer Sargent at the Art UK site Biography, Style and Artworks John Singer Sargent – Gallery of 809 paintings. "Mrs. Edward Goetz" at [Brigham Young Museum of Art] John Singer Sargent Virtual Gallery Sargent at Harvard – searchable database by Harvard University Art Museums The Sargent Murals at Boston Public Library John Singer Sargent – News, biography and works John Singer Sargent, Miss M. Carey Thomas, July 1899, oil on canvas, Bryn Mawr College Art and Artifact Collections John Singer Sargent Letters Online at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art "Sargent and the Sea at the Royal Academy", review by Richard Dorment, The Guardian, 12 July 2010 John Singer Sargent at Find a Grave John Singer Sargent at Harper's Magazine John Singer Sargent at Smithsonian American Art Museum John Singer Sargent exhibition catalogs A video discussion about Sargent's Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose from Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Works by John Singer Sargent at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Singer Sargent at Internet Archive John Singer Sargent at the Jewish Museum vte John Singer Sargent Paintings List of works Arab Woman (-) The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit (1882) El Jaleo (1882) Lady with the Rose (Charlotte Louise Burckhardt) (1882) Street in Venice (1882) Portrait of Madame X (1884) The Misses Vickers (1884) Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885) Reapers Resting in a Wheat Field (1885) Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth (1889) Egyptians Raising Water from the Nile (1890–1891) Egyptian Woman with Earrings (1890–91) Lady Agnew of Lochnaw (1892) Mrs. Hugh Hammersley (1892) Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Phelps Stokes (1897) Wertheimer portraits (1898-1908) The Wyndham Sisters: Lady Elcho, Mrs. Adeane, and Mrs. Tennant (1899) William M. Chase, N. A. (1902) Mrs. Fiske Warren (Gretchen Osgood) and Her Daughter Rachel (1903) Padre Sebastiano (1904–1906) Alpine Pool (1907) Cashmere (1908) The Hermit (Il solitario) (1908) Bringing Down Marble from the Quarries to Carrara (1911) Tyrolese Interior (1915) Gassed (1919) General Officers of World War I (1922) Drawings Mountain Stream (1912–1914) Related Grand Central Art Galleries Grand Central School of Art (wikipedia)

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[Sammelband mit 14 Original-Schriftstücken auf 47 unbeschnittenen Bll. von und an französische Ambassadoren in Solothurn (z.B. Myron, Monthillier?, Rohan, Marches von Brié?), die ersten 13 über eine Berichtszeit von 1624-1631, das letzte Schriftstück  von 1734].

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HLS (9.7.2001): "Der erste ordentl. Gesandte [Ambassador], Louis Daugerant de Boisrigaut, liess sich 1530 im kath. gebliebenen...frankreichtreuen Solothurn nieder...1552-1792 war die Ambassade im ehem. Franziskanerkloster...eingemietet...Die Einflussnahme des A[mbassador]s auf die solothurn. Politik bildet ein zentrales Thema der Gesch[ichte] dieses K[antons]...Zweifellos war...der Ambassadorenhof mehr lesen ...
Schlagworte: Ancien Régime; Diplomatie; Frankreich; Solothurn

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tadelloser Zustand - mint condition. Shirley Temple Black (April 23, 1928 – February 10, 2014) was an American actress, singer, dancer, businesswoman, and diplomat who was Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia, and also served as Chief of Protocol of the United States. AK001 mehr lesen ...
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Schlagworte: Autogramm, autograph autographe, unterschrift, signature signiert signed original signe, AK Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years later, she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Temple capitalized on licensed merchandise that featured her wholesome image; the merchandise included dolls, dishes, and clothing. Her box-office popularity waned as she reached adolescence.[1] She appeared in a few films of varying quality in her mid-to-late teens, and retired from films in 1950 at the age of 22.[2][3] In 1958, Temple returned to show business with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations. She made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot that was never released. She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, and the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969, when she was appointed to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, where she worked at the U.S Mission under Ambassador Charles W. Yost. In 1988, she published her autobiography, Child Star.[4] Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. She is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema. Contents Early years Temple in Glad Rags to Riches (1933) Shirley Temple was born on April 23, 1928, in Santa Monica, California, the third child of homemaker Gertrude Amelia Temple and bank employee George Francis Temple. The family was of Dutch, English, and German ancestry.[5][6] She had two brothers: John Stanley, and George Francis, Jr.[6][7][8] The family moved to Brentwood, Los Angeles.[9] Her mother encouraged her singing, dancing, and acting talents, and in September 1931 enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.[10][11][12] At about this time, Shirley's mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets.[13] While at the dance school, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, who was a casting director for Educational Pictures. Temple hid behind the piano while she was in the studio. Lamont took a liking to Temple, and invited her to audition; he signed her to a contract in 1932. Educational Pictures was going to launch its Baby Burlesks,[14][15][16][17] multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events by using preschool children in every role. Baby Burlesks is a series of one-reelers, and another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed with Temple playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family.[18] To underwrite production costs at Educational Pictures, she and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products.[19][20] She was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film (The Red-Haired Alibi) in 1932[21][22] and, in 1933, to Universal, Paramount, and Warner Bros. Pictures for various parts.[23][24] After Educational Pictures declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father managed to purchase her contract for just $25.[citation needed] Film career Temple's handprints and footprints at Grauman's Chinese Theater Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney was walking out of the viewing of Temple's last Frolics of Youth picture when he saw her dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a screen test for the movie Stand Up and Cheer! Temple arrived for the audition on December 7, 1933; she won the part and was signed to a $150-per-week contract that was guaranteed for two weeks by Fox Film Corporation. The role was a breakthrough performance for Temple. Her charm was evident to Fox executives, and she was ushered into corporate offices almost immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow, a song-and-dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach.[25] Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment.[26] In June, her success continued when she was loaned out to Paramount for Little Miss Marker.[27][28] After the success of her first three movies, Shirley's parents realized that their daughter was not being paid enough money. Her image also began to appear on numerous commercial products without her legal authorization and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, Temple's parents hired lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Temple's original contract for $150 per week is equivalent to $2,750 in 2015, adjusted for inflation. However, the economic value of $150 during the Great Depression was equal to $18,500. The subsequent salary increase to $1,000 weekly had the economic value of $123,000 and the bonus of $15,000 per movie (equal to $275,000 in 2015) was equivalent to $1.85 million in a decade when a quarter could buy a meal.[29] Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses.[30] On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released. The movie was the first feature film crafted specifically for Temple's talents and the first where her name appeared eponymously over the title.[31][32] Her signature song, "On the Good Ship Lollipop", was introduced in the film and sold 500,000 sheet-music copies. In February 1935, Temple became the first child star to be honored with a miniature Juvenile Oscar for her film accomplishments,[33][34][35][note 2] and she added her footprints and handprints to the forecourt at Grauman's Chinese Theatre a month later.[36] In 1935, Fox Films merged with Twentieth Century Pictures to become 20th Century Fox. Producer and studio head Darryl F. Zanuck focused his attention and resources upon cultivating Shirley's superstar status. She was said to be the studio's greatest asset. Nineteen writers, known as the Shirley Temple Story Development team, made 11 original stories and some adaptations of the classics for her.[37] In keeping with her star status, Winfield Sheehan built Temple a four-room bungalow at the studio with a garden, a picket fence, a tree with a swing, and a rabbit pen. The living room wall was painted with a mural depicting her as a fairy-tale princess wearing a golden star on her head. Under Zanuck, she was assigned a bodyguard, John Griffith, a childhood friend of Zanuck's,[38] and, at the end of 1935, Frances "Klammie" Klampt became her tutor at the studio.[39] Biographer Anne Edwards wrote about the tone and tenor of Shirley Temple films, "This was mid-Depression, and schemes proliferated for the care of the needy and the regeneration of the fallen. But they all required endless paperwork and demeaning, hours-long queues, at the end of which an exhausted, nettled social worker dealt with each person as a faceless number. Shirley offered a natural solution: to open one's heart."[40] Edwards pointed out that the characters created for Temple would change the lives of the cold, the hardened, and the criminal with positive results. Her films were seen as generating hope and optimism, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "It is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents, an American can go to a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles."[41][note 3] First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Shirley Temple, 1938 Most of the Shirley Temple films were inexpensively made at $200,000 or $300,000 apiece and were comedy-dramas with songs and dances added, sentimental and melodramatic situations, and bearing little production value. Her film titles are a clue to the way she was marketed—Curly Top and Dimples, and her "little" pictures such as The Little Colonel and The Littlest Rebel. Shirley often played a fixer-upper, a precocious Cupid, or the good fairy in these films, reuniting her estranged parents or smoothing out the wrinkles in the romances of young couples.[42] Elements of the traditional fairy tale were woven into her films: wholesome goodness triumphing over meanness and evil, for example, or wealth over poverty, marriage over divorce, or a booming economy over a depressed one.[43] As the girl matured into a pre-adolescent, the formula was altered slightly to encourage her naturalness, naïveté, and tomboyishness to come forth and shine while her infant innocence, which had served her well at six but was inappropriate for her tweens (or later childhood years), was toned down.[42] 1935–1937 In the contract they signed in July 1934, Temple's parents agreed to four films a year (rather than the three they wished). A succession of films followed: The Little Colonel, Our Little Girl, Curly Top (with the signature song "Animal Crackers in My Soup"), and The Littlest Rebel in 1935. Curly Top and The Littlest Rebel were named to Variety's list of top box office draws for 1935.[44] In 1936, Captain January, Poor Little Rich Girl, Dimples,[note 4] and Stowaway were released. Curly Top was Shirley's last film before the merger of 20th Century and Fox.[citation needed] Based on Temple's many screen successes, Zanuck increased budgets and production values for her films. By the end of 1935, her salary was $2,500 a week.[45] In 1937, John Ford was hired to direct the sepia-toned Wee Willie Winkie (Temple's own favorite) and an A-list cast was signed that included Victor McLaglen, C. Aubrey Smith and Cesar Romero.[46][47] Elaborate sets were built at the famed Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, for the production, with a rock feature at the heavily filmed location ranch eventually being named the Shirley Temple Rock. The film was a critical and commercial hit.[48] Subsequently Shirley Temple and Twentieth Century-Fox sued critic British writer/critic Graham Greene for libel and won. The settlement remained in trust for the girl in an English bank until she turned 21, when it was donated to charity and used to build a youth center in England.[49][50] Heidi was the only other Shirley Temple film released in 1937.[49] Midway through the shooting of the movie, the dream sequence was added to the script. There were reports that the little actress was behind the dream sequence and she had enthusiastically pushed for it, but in her autobiography, she vehemently denied it. Her contract gave neither her nor her parents any creative control over the movies she was in. She saw this as the collapse of any serious attempt by the studio to build upon the dramatic role from the previous movie Wee Willie Winkie.[51] 1938–1940 File:The Little Princess (1939) full.ogvPlay media Shirley Temple in The Little Princess, her first color film The Independent Theatre Owners Association paid for an advertisement in The Hollywood Reporter in May 1938 that included Temple on a list of actors who deserved their salaries while others' (including Katharine Hepburn and Joan Crawford) "box-office draw is nil".[52] That year, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Little Miss Broadway and Just Around the Corner were released. The latter two were panned by the critics, and Corner was the first of her films to show a slump in ticket sales.[53] The following year, Zanuck secured the rights to the children's novel A Little Princess, believing the book would be an ideal vehicle for the girl. He budgeted the film at $1.5 million (twice the amount of Corner) and chose it to be her first Technicolor feature. The Little Princess was a 1939 critical and commercial success, with Shirley's acting at its peak. Convinced that the girl would successfully move from child star to teenage actress, Zanuck declined a substantial offer from MGM to star her as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, and cast her instead in Susannah of the Mounties, her last money-maker for Twentieth Century Fox.[54][55] The film was successful, but because she made only two films in 1939, instead of three or four, Shirley dropped from number one box-office favorite in 1938 to number five in 1939.[56] In 1939, she was the subject of the Salvador Dalí painting Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time, and she was animated with Donald Duck in The Autograph Hound.[citation needed] In 1940, Lester Cowan, an independent film producer, bought F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story, "Babylon Revisited and Other Stories", for $80, which was a bargain. Fitzgerald thought his screenwriting days were over, and, with some hesitation, accepted Cowan's offer to write the screenplay titled "Cosmopolitan" based on the short story. After finishing the screenplay, Scott was told by Cowan that he would not do the film, unless Temple starred in the lead of the youngster Honoria. Fitzgerald objected, saying that at age 12, going on twenty, the actress was too worldly for the part and would detract from the aura of innocence otherwise framed by Honoria's character. After meeting Shirley in July, Fitzgerald changed his mind, and tried to persuade her mother to let her star in the film. However, her mother demurred. In any case, the Cowan project was shelved by the producer. Fitzgerald was later credited with the use of the original story for The Last Time I Saw Paris starring Elizabeth Taylor.[57] In 1940, Shirley starred in two flops at Twentieth Century Fox – The Blue Bird and Young People.[58][59] Her parents bought up the remainder of her contract, and sent her, at the age of 12, to Westlake School for Girls, an exclusive country day school in Los Angeles.[60] At the studio, the girl's bungalow was renovated, all traces of her tenure expunged, and the building was reassigned as an office.[59] 1941–1950 retirement After her departure from Twentieth Century-Fox,[note 5] Shirley was signed by MGM for her comeback; the studio made plans to team her with Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney for the Andy Hardy series. The idea was quickly abandoned, but MGM then teamed her with Garland and Rooney for the musical Babes on Broadway. Fearing that either of the latter two could easily upstage the girl, MGM replaced her with Virginia Weidler. As a result, her only film for Metro was Kathleen in 1941, a story about an unhappy teenager. The film was not a success, and her MGM contract was canceled after mutual consent. Miss Annie Rooney followed for United Artists in 1942, but was unsuccessful.[note 6] The actress retired from films for almost two years, in order to instead focus on school and activities.[61] In 1944, David O. Selznick signed Shirley Temple to a four-year contract. She appeared in two wartime hits: Since You Went Away, and I'll Be Seeing You. Selznick, however, became romantically involved with Jennifer Jones, and lost interest in developing Shirley's career. Temple was then lent to other studios. Kiss and Tell, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer,[note 7] and Fort Apache were her few good films at the time.[62] According to biographer Robert Windeler, her 1947–1949 films neither made nor lost money, but "had a cheapie B look about them and indifferent performances from her".[63] Selznick suggested that she move abroad, gain maturity as an actress, and even change her name. He warned her that she was typecast, and her career was in perilous straits.[63][64] After auditioning for, and losing, the role of Peter Pan on the Broadway stage in August 1950,[65] Temple took stock, and admitted that her recent movies had been poor fare. She announced her retirement from films on December 16, 1950.[63][66] Radio career Temple had her own radio series on CBS. Junior Miss debuted March 4, 1942, in which she played the title role. The series was based on stories by Sally Benson. Sponsored by Procter & Gamble, Junior Miss was directed by Gordon Hughes, with David Rose as musical director.[67] Merchandise and endorsements Shirley Temple leaving the White House offices with her mother and her bodyguard, John Griffith, 1938 Many Shirley Temple-inspired products were manufactured and released during the 1930s. Ideal Toy and Novelty Company in New York City negotiated a license for dolls with the company's first doll wearing the polka-dot dress from Stand Up and Cheer!. Shirley Temple dolls realized $45 million in sales before 1941.[68] A mug, a pitcher, and a cereal bowl in cobalt blue with a decal of the little actress were given away as a premium with Wheaties. Successful Shirley Temple items included a line of girls' dresses, accessories, soap, dishes, cutout books, sheet music, mirrors, paper tablets, and numerous other items. Before 1935 ended, the girl's income from licensed merchandise royalties would exceed $100,000, which doubled her income from her movies. In 1936, her income from royalties topped $200,000. She endorsed Postal Telegraph, Sperry Drifted Snow Flour, the Grunow Teledial radio, Quaker Puffed Wheat,[68] General Electric, and Packard automobiles.[69][note 8] Myths and rumors At the height of her popularity, Shirley Temple was often the subject of myths and rumors, with some being propagated by 20th Century Fox/Fox Films. Fox also publicized her as a natural talent with no formal acting or dance training. As a way of explaining how she knew stylized buck-and-wing dancing, she was enrolled for two weeks in the Elisa Ryan School of Dancing.[70] False claims circulated that Temple was not a child, but a 30-year-old dwarf, due in part to her stocky body type. The rumor was so prevalent, especially in Europe, that the Vatican dispatched Father Silvio Massante to investigate whether she was indeed a child. The fact that she never seemed to miss any teeth led some people to conclude that she had all her adult teeth. Temple was actually losing her teeth regularly through her days with 20th Century Fox, most notably during the sidewalk ceremony in front of Grauman's Theatre, where she took off her shoes and placed her bare feet in the cement to take attention away from her face. When acting, she wore dental plates and caps to hide the gaps in her teeth.[71] Another rumor said her teeth had been filed to make them appear like baby teeth.[72] A rumor about Temple's trademark hair was the idea that she wore a wig. On multiple occasions, fans yanked her hair to test the rumor. She later said she wished all she had to do was wear a wig. The nightly process she endured in the setting of her curls was tedious and grueling, with weekly vinegar rinses that burned her eyes.[73] Rumors spread that her hair color was not naturally blonde. During the making of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, news spread that she was going to do extended scenes without her trademark curls. During production, she also caught a cold, which caused her to miss a couple of days. As a result, a false report originated in Britain that all of her hair had been cut off.[72] Television career Temple in 1965 Between January 1958 and September 1961, Temple hosted and narrated a successful NBC television anthology series of fairy-tale adaptations called Shirley Temple's Storybook. Episodes were one hour each, and Temple acted in three of the sixteen episodes. Temple's son made his acting debut in the Christmas episode, "Mother Goose".[74][75] The series was popular but faced issues. The show lacked the special effects necessary for fairy tale dramatizations, sets were amateurish, and episodes were not telecast in a regular time-slot.[76] The show was reworked and released in color in September 1960 in a regular time-slot as The Shirley Temple Show.[77][78] It faced stiff competition from Maverick, Lassie, Dennis the Menace, the 1960 telecast of The Wizard of Oz, and the Walt Disney anthology television series however, and was canceled at season's end in September 1961.[79] Temple continued to work on television, making guest appearances on The Red Skelton Show, Sing Along with Mitch, and other shows.[77] In January 1965, she portrayed a social worker in a pilot called Go Fight City Hall that was never released.[80] In 1999, she hosted the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars awards show on CBS, and, in 2001, served as a consultant on an ABC-TV production of her autobiography, Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story.[81] Motivated by the popularity of Storybook and television broadcasts of Temple's films, the Ideal Toy Company released a new version of the Shirley Temple doll and Random House published three fairy tale anthologies under her name. 300,000 dolls were sold within six months and 225,000 books between October and December 1958. Other merchandise included handbags and hats, coloring books, a toy theater, and a recreation of the Baby Take a Bow polka-dot dress.[82] Life after Hollywood Temple became active in the Republican Party in California. In 1967, she ran unsuccessfully in a special election in California's 11th congressional district to fill the seat left vacant by the leukemia death of eight-term Republican J. Arthur Younger.[83][84] She ran in the open primary as a conservative Republican and came second with 34,521 votes (22.44%), behind Republican law school professor Pete McCloskey, who placed first in the primary with 52,882 votes (34.37%) and advanced to the general election with Democrat Roy A. Archibald, who finished fourth with 15,069 votes (9.79%), but advanced as the highest-placed Democratic candidate. In the general election, McCloskey was elected with 63,850 votes (57.2%) to Archibald's 43,759 votes (39.2%). Temple received 3,938 votes (3.53%) as an independent write-in.[85][86] Temple (far left) with First Lady Pat Nixon in Ghana, 1972 Temple was extensively involved with the Commonwealth Club of California, a public-affairs forum headquartered in San Francisco. She spoke at many meetings through the years and was president for a period in 1984.[87][88] Temple got her start in foreign service after her failed run for Congress in 1967 when Henry Kissinger overheard her talking about South West Africa at a party. He was surprised that she knew anything about it.[89] She was appointed as a delegate to the 24th United Nations General Assembly (September – December 1969) by President Richard M. Nixon[90][91][92] and United States Ambassador to Ghana (December 6, 1974 – July 13, 1976) by President Gerald R. Ford.[93] She was appointed first female Chief of Protocol of the United States (July 1, 1976 – January 21, 1977) and in charge of arrangements for President Jimmy Carter's inauguration and inaugural ball.[93][94] She served as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia (August 23, 1989 – July 12, 1992), having been appointed by President George H. W. Bush,[69] and was the first and only female to do so. Temple was a witness to two crucial moments in the history of Czechoslovakia's fight against communism. She was in Prague in August 1968, as a representative of the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies and going to meet with Czechoslovakian party leader Alexander Dubcek on the very day that Soviet-backed forces invaded the country. Dubcek fell out of favor with the Soviets after a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring. Temple, who was stranded at a hotel as the tanks rolled in, sought refuge on the roof of the hotel. She later reported that it was from here she saw an unarmed woman on the street gunned down by Soviet forces, a sight that stayed with her for the rest of her life.[95] Later, after she became ambassador to Czechoslovakia, she was present in the Velvet Revolution, which brought about the end of communism in Czechoslovakia. Temple openly sympathized with anti-communist dissidents and was ambassador when the US established formal diplomatic relations with the newly elected government led by Václav Havel. She took the unusual step of personally accompanying Havel on his first official visit to Washington, travelling on the same plane.[89] Temple served on boards of directors of large enterprises and organizations such as The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, Bank of America, Bank of California, BANCAL Tri-State, Fireman's Fund Insurance, United States Commission for UNESCO, United Nations Association and National Wildlife Federation.[96] Personal life Temple in 1990 In 1943, 15-year-old Temple met John Agar (1921–2002), an Army Air Corps sergeant, physical training instructor, and member of a Chicago meat-packing family.[97][98] She married him at age 17 on September 19, 1945 before 500 guests in an Episcopal ceremony at Wilshire Methodist Church in Los Angeles.[99][100][101] On January 30, 1948, Temple bore a daughter, Linda Susan.[99][102][103] Agar became an actor, and the couple made two films together: Fort Apache (1948, RKO) and Adventure in Baltimore (1949, RKO).[103] The marriage became troubled,[103][104] and Temple divorced Agar on December 5, 1949.[69][103] She was awarded custody of their daughter.[103][105][106] The divorce was finalized on December 5, 1950. In January 1950, Temple met Charles Alden Black, a World War II Navy intelligence officer and Silver Star recipient who was Assistant to the President of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.[107][108] Conservative and patrician, he was the son of James Black, president and later chairman of Pacific Gas and Electric, and reputedly one of the richest young men in California. Temple and Black were married in his parents' Del Monte, California home on December 16, 1950, before a small assembly of family and friends.[99][108][109] The family moved to Washington, D.C. when Black was recalled to the Navy at the outbreak of the Korean War.[110] On April 28, 1952, Temple gave birth to a son, Charles Alden Black, Jr., in Washington.[99][111][112] Following the war's end and Black's discharge from the Navy, the family returned to California in May 1953. Black managed television station KABC-TV in Los Angeles, and Temple became a homemaker. Their daughter, Lori, was born on April 9, 1954;[99] she went on to be a bassist for the rock band the Melvins. In September 1954, Charles Sr. became director of business operations for the Stanford Research Institute, and the family moved to Atherton, California.[113] The couple were married for 54 years until his death on August 4, 2005, at home in Woodside, California of complications from a bone marrow disease.[114] Cancer battle At age 44 in 1972, Temple was diagnosed with breast cancer. The tumor was removed and a modified radical mastectomy performed.[115] She announced the results of the operation on radio and television and in a February 1973 article for the magazine McCall's. Death Temple died at age 85 on February 10, 2014, at her home in Woodside, California.[116][117] The cause of death, according to her death certificate released on March 3, 2014, was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[118] Temple was a lifelong smoker but avoided displaying her habit in public because she did not want to set a bad example for her fans.[119] Awards, honors, and legacy Temple wearing the Kennedy Center Honors, 1998 Temple was the recipient of many awards and honors, including a special Juvenile Academy Award,[99] the Life Achievement Award from the American Center of Films for Children,[93] the National Board of Review Career Achievement Award,[120] Kennedy Center Honors,[121][122] and the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award.[123] On March 14, 1935, Shirley left her footprints and handprints in the wet cement at the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. She was the Grand Marshal of the New Year's Day Rose Parade in Pasadena, California three times in 1939, 1989, and 1999. On February 8, 1960, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In February 1980, Temple was honored by the Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, along with U.S. Senator Jake Garn, actor James Stewart, singer John Denver, and Tom Abraham, an American businessman who worked with immigrants seeking to become US citizens.[124] On September 11, 2002, a life-size bronze statue of the child Temple by sculptor Nijel Binns was erected on the Fox Studio lot.[125] Filmography Main article: Shirley Temple filmography See also Book: Shirley Temple Film portal List of former child actors from the United States List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees Notes While Temple occasionally used "Jane" as a middle name, her birth certificate reads "Shirley Temple". Her birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood shortly after she signed with Fox in 1934; her birth year was advanced from 1928 to 1929. Even her baby book was revised to support the 1929 date. She confirmed her true age when she was 21 (Burdick 5; Edwards 23n, 43n). Temple was presented with a full-sized Oscar in 1985 (Edwards 357). Shirley and her parents traveled to Washington, D.C. late in 1935 to meet Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor. The presidential couple invited the Temple family to a cook-out at their home, where Eleanor, bending over an outdoor grill, was hit smartly in the rear with a pebble from the slingshot that Shirley carried everywhere in her little lace purse (Edwards 81). In Dimples, Temple was upstaged for the first time in her film career by Frank Morgan, who played Professor Appleby with such zest as to render the child actress almost the amateur (Windeler 175). In 1941, Temple worked radio with four shows for Lux soap and a four-part Shirley Temple Time for Elgin. Of radio, she said, "It's adorable. I get a big thrill out of it, and I want to do as much radio work as I can." (Windeler 43) the teenager received her first on-screen kiss in the film (from Dickie Moore, on the cheek) (Edwards 136). When she took her first on-screen drink (and spat it out) in Bobby-Soxer, the Women's Christian Temperance Union protested that unthinking teenagers might do the same after seeing the teenage Shirley in the films (Life Staff 140). In the 1990s, audio recordings of the girl's film songs and videos of her films were released, but she received no royalties. Porcelain dolls were created by Elke Hutchens. The Danbury Mint released plates and figurines depicting her in her film roles, and, in 2000, a porcelain tea set (Burdick 136) References "Shirley Temple". biography.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012. Balio 227 Windeler 26 Child Star. McGraw-Hill. 1998. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Edwards 15, 17 Windeler 16 Edwards 15 Burdick 3 A look at the late Shirley Temple's very first home, yahoo.com; retrieved 2016-12-28. Edwards 29–30 Windeler 17 Burdick 6 Edwards 26 Edwards 31 Black 14 Edwards 31–34 Windeler 111 Windeler 113, 115, 122 Black 15 Edwards 36 Black 28 Edwards 37, 366 Edwards 267–269 Windeler 122 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988, 32–36. Barrios 421 Edwards 62 Windeler 122, 127 "Measuring Worth - Results". measuringworth.com. Retrieved May 10, 2018. Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, pp. 79–83. Edwards 67 Windeler 143 Black 98–101 Edwards 80 Windeler 27–28 Black 72 Edwards 74–75 Edwards 77 Edwards 78 Edwards 75 Edwards 75–76 Balio 227–228 Zipes 518 Balio 228 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, 130. Windeler 183 Edwards 104–105 Edwards 105, 363 Edwards 106 Windeler 35 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, 192–193. "Box-office Busts/Boys and Girls". Life. pp. 13, 28. Retrieved September 8, 2012. Edwards 120–121 Edwards 122–123 Windeler 207 Edwards 124 E. Ray Canterbery and Thomas D. Birch, F. Scott Fitzgerald: Under the Influence, St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House, 2006, pp. 347–352. Burdick 268 Edwards 128 Windeler 38 Windeler 43–45 Windeler 49-52 Windeler 71 Edwards 206 Edwards 209 Black 479–481 "Shirley Temple in Title Role Of 'Junior Miss' Radio Drama". Harrisburg Telegraph. February 28, 1942. p. 22. Retrieved March 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read Black 85–86 Thomas; Scheftel Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 72–73, 183–184. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Lindeman, Edith. "The Real Miss Temple". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2014. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Edwards 231, 233, 393 Windeler 255 Burdick 112–113 Edwards 393 Burdick 115 Burdick 115–116 Edwards 235–236, 393 "Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 15, 2012. Edwards 233 Edwards 243ff Windeler 80ff Sean Howell (July 1, 2009). "Documentary salutes Pete McCloskey". The Almanac Online. Embarcadero Publishing Co. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Romney, Lee (June 11, 2012). "Between two public servants, Purple Heart-felt admiration". LATimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-05. "In Memoriam: Shirley Temple Black". commonwealthclub.org. Retrieved November 13, 2014. Joshua Keating, "Shirley Temple Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career: Including an Encounter with Frank Zappa", Slate, February 11, 2014. Edwards 356 Windeler 85 Aljean Harmetz, "Shirley Temple Black, Hollywood's Biggest Little Star, Dies at 85", The New York Times, February 11, 2014 Edwards 357 Windeler 105 Craig R. Whitney, "Prague Journal: Shirley Temple Black Unpacks a Bag of Memories", New York Times, September 11, 1989. Edwards 318, 356–357 Edwards 147 Windeler 53 Edwards 355 Edwards 169 Windeler 54 Black 419–421 Windeler 68 Edwards 199–200 Black 449 Edwards 199 Edwards 207 Windeler 72 Edwards 211 Edwards 215 Edwards 217 Windeler 72–73 Windeler 74 Dawicki 2005 http://breastcancerconsortium.net/the-lives-they-lived-shirley-temple-black "Hollywood star Shirley Temple dies". BBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2014. "Shirley Temple, former Hollywood child star, dies at 85". Reuters. 2014-02-11. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Dicker, Chris. Shirley Temple Biography: The 'Perfect Life' of the Child Star Shirley Temple During the Great Depression. Chris Dicker. "Obituary: Shirley Temple". BBC News. February 11, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. "Shirley Temple Black". The National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved February 12, 2014. "History of Past Honorees". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Burdick 136 "Shirley Temple Black: 2005 Life Achievement Recipient". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved February 12, 2014. "Tom Abraham to be honored by Freedoms Foundation Feb. 22", Canadian Record, February 14, 1980, p. 19 "The Shirley Temple Monument". Nijart. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Bibliography Balio, Tino (1995) [1993]. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20334-1. Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508810-6. Black, Shirley Temple (1989) [1988]. Child Star: An Autobiography. Warner Books, Inc. ISBN 978-0-446-35792-0. Burdick, Loraine (2003). The Shirley Temple Scrapbook. Jonathan David Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8246-0449-3. Dawicki, Shelley (August 10, 2005). "In Memoriam: Charles A. Black". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved February 10, 2011. Hatch, Kristen. Shirley Temple and the Performance of Girlhood (Rutgers University Press, 2015) x, 173 pp. Edwards, Anne (1988). Shirley Temple: American Princess. William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-688-06051-0. Life Staff (1946-09-16). "Tempest Over Temple: Shirley sips liquor and the W.C.T.U. protests". Life. 21 (12): 140. Thomas, Andy; Scheftel, Jeff (1996). Shirley Temple: The Biggest Little Star. Biography. A&E Television Networks. ISBN 978-0-7670-8495-6 Windeler, Robert (1992) [1978]. The Films of Shirley Temple. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-0725-5. Zipes, Jack, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-9653635-7-0. Further reading Basinger, Jeanine (1993). A Woman's View: How Hollywood Spoke to Women, 1930–1960. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 262ff. ISBN 978-0-394-56351-0. Best, Marc (1971). Those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen. South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co. pp. 251–255. Bogle, Donald (2001) [1974]. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 45–52. ISBN 978-0-8264-1267-6. Cook, James W.; Glickman, Lawrence B.; O'Malley, Michael (2008). The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future. University of Chicago Press. pp. 186ff. ISBN 978-0-226-11506-1. Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914–1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 227–228. Everett, Charles (2004) [1974]. "Shirley Temple and the House of Rockefeller". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media (2): 1, 17–20. Kasson, John F. The Little Girl Who Fought the Great Depression: Shirley Temple and 1930s America (2014) Excerpt Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, ed. (1996). Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York University Press. pp. 185–203. ISBN 978-0-8147-8217-0. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shirley Temple. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shirley Temple Wikinews has related news: Many SAG Awards presenters announced Official website Shirley Temple on IMDb Shirley Temple at the TCM Movie Database Edit this at Wikidata Shirley Temple at Find a Grave Photographs of Shirley Temple Wee Willie Winkie at the Iverson Movie Ranch Norwood, Arlisha. "Shirley Temple". National Women's History Museum. 2017. Awards and achievements Preceded by None Academy Juvenile Award 1934 Succeeded by Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney 1938 Preceded by James Garner Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award 2005 Succeeded by Julie Andrews Diplomatic posts Preceded by Fred L. Hadsel United States Ambassador to Ghana 1974–1976 Succeeded by Robert P. Smith Preceded by Henry E. Catto, Jr. Chief of Protocol of the United States 1976–1977 Succeeded by Evan Dobelle Preceded by Julian Niemczyk United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia 1989–1992 Succeeded by Adrian A. Basora vte Shirley Temple Filmography Songs "On the Good Ship Lollipop" "Animal Crackers in My Soup" "Goodnight My Love" Related John Agar (first husband) Charles Alden Black (second husband) Lori Black (daughter) Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time Shirley Temple's Storybook Shirley Temple (drink) Baby Burlesks vte Academy Honorary Award 1928–1950 Warner Bros. / Charlie Chaplin (1928) Walt Disney (1932) Shirley Temple (1934) D. W. Griffith (1935) The March of Time / W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen / W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art Film Library / Mack Sennett (1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney / Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney / Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner (1938) Douglas Fairbanks / Judy Garland / William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope / Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer / Noël Coward / Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1942) George Pal (1943) Bob Hope / Margaret O'Brien (1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell / Laurence Olivier / Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor / Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger / Monsieur Vincent / Sid Grauman / Adolph Zukor (1948) Jean Hersholt / Fred Astaire / Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer / George Murphy / The Walls of Malapaga (1950) 1951–1975 Gene Kelly / Rashomon (1951) Merian C. Cooper / Bob Hope / Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games (1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley / Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor (1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier (1958) Buster Keaton / Lee de Forest (1959) Gary Cooper / Stan Laurel / Hayley Mills (1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins (1961) William J. Tuttle (1964) Bob Hope (1965) Yakima Canutt / Y. Frank Freeman (1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant (1969) Lillian Gish / Orson Welles (1970) Charlie Chaplin (1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson (1972) Henri Langlois / Groucho Marx (1973) Howard Hawks / Jean Renoir (1974) Mary Pickford (1975) 1976–2000 Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz / Laurence Olivier / King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness (1979) Henry Fonda (1980) Barbara Stanwyck (1981) Mickey Rooney (1982) Hal Roach (1983) James Stewart / National Endowment for the Arts (1984) Paul Newman / Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy (1986) Eastman Kodak Company / National Film Board of Canada (1988) Akira Kurosawa (1989) Sophia Loren / Myrna Loy (1990) Satyajit Ray (1991) Federico Fellini (1992) Deborah Kerr (1993) Michelangelo Antonioni (1994) Kirk Douglas / Chuck Jones (1995) Michael Kidd (1996) Stanley Donen (1997) Elia Kazan (1998) Andrzej Wajda (1999) Jack Cardiff / Ernest Lehman (2000) 2001–present Sidney Poitier / Robert Redford (2001) Peter O'Toole (2002) Blake Edwards (2003) Sidney Lumet (2004) Robert Altman (2005) Ennio Morricone (2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall / Roger Corman / Gordon Willis (2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard / Eli Wallach (2010) James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker / Hal Needham / George Stevens Jr. (2012) Angela Lansbury / Steve Martin / Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière / Hayao Miyazaki / Maureen O'Hara (2014) Spike Lee / Gena Rowlands (2015) Jackie Chan / Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda (2017) Marvin Levy / Lalo Schifrin / Cicely Tyson (2018) vte Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award 1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman 2018: Alan Alda vte Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s) 1990 Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder 1991 Roy Acuff Betty Comden and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw 1992 Lionel Hampton Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor 1993 Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams 1994 Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger 1995 Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon 1996 Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief 1997 Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella 1998 Fred Ebb and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple Black 1999 Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder Beverly Aadland Allegra Acosta Ava Acres Isabella Acres Pamela Adlon Lassie Lou Ahern Peggy Ahern Lexi Ainsworth Mackenzie Aladjem Lori Alan Jessica Alba Sherry Alberoni Kristen Alderson Raquel Alessi Tatyana Ali Ava Allan Christa B. Allen Sasha Allen Ta-Ronce Allen Tessa Allen Viola Allen Lindsey Alley Hannah Alligood Trini Alvarado Trudi Ames Eva Amurri Aubrey Anderson-Emmons Ella Anderson Melissa Sue Anderson Paola Andino Meghan Andrews June Angela Odette Annable Lulu Antariksa Jasmine Jessica Anthony Iris Apatow Maude Apatow Shiri Appleby Christina Applegate Lisa Arch Ashley Argota Allisyn Ashley Arm Lucie Arnaz Alison Arngrim Cheryl Arutt Shay Astar Essence Atkins Annabelle Attanasio Tanveer K. Atwal Alana Austin Nicole Axelrod B Sosie Bacon Vanessa Baden Helen Badgley Mary Badham Johanna Baer Adrienne Bailon Pamela Baird Fairuza Balk Amanda Balon Allison Balson Anastasia Baranova Olivia Barash Andrea Barber Ariela Barer Ann Barnes Tara Lynne Barr Sasha Barrese Dana Barron Drew Barrymore Judith Barsi Lynsey Bartilson Alison Bartlett-O'Reilly Betty Bartley Mischa Barton Skye McCole Bartusiak Lina Basquette Brec Bassinger Annalise Basso Justine Bateman Talitha Bateman Angelique Bates Maggie Batson Miriam Battista Aviva Baumann Brigid Bazlen Lindsay Beamish Carlena Beard Jordana Beatty Madisen Beaty Jenny Beck Kimberly Beck Emma Bell Kristen Bell Eva Bella Rachael Bella Camilla Belle Troian Bellisario Dawn Bender Landry Bender Julia Benjamin Haley Bennett Melissa Benoist Ashley Benson Blaze Berdahl Paris Berelc Anna Berger (actress) Nicole Berger (American actress) Kelli Berglund Elizabeth Berkley Serena Berman Valerie Bertinelli Mayim Bialik Camren Bicondova Jessica Biel Thora Birch Amy Birnbaum Summer Bishil Julie Bishop (actress) Meredith Bishop Sofia Black-D'Elia Linda Blair Amelia Rose Blaire Jennifer Blanc Rowan Blanchard Sally Blane Kirby Bliss Blanton Tempestt Bledsoe Yasmine Bleeth Nikki Blonsky Daphne Blunt Ann Blyth Ashley Boettcher Lisa Bonet Jessica Boone Mika Boorem Irène Bordoni Samantha Boscarino Kate Bosworth Katrina Bowden Andrea Bowen Jessica Bowman Jenna Boyd Eileen April Boylan Lucy Boynton Johanna Braddy Steffani Brass Ciara Bravo Laura Breckenridge Abigail Breslin Betty Brewer Jordana Brewster Maia Brewton Chloe Bridges Penny Bae Bridges Lottie Briscoe Danielle Brisebois Tiffany Brissette Morgan Brittany Aimee Brooks Tess Broussard Kimberly J. Brown Rhyon Nicole Brown Logan Browning Sally Jane Bruce Shelbie Bruce Agnes Bruckner Amy Bruckner Francoise Brun-Cottan Sabrina Bryan Clara Bryant Ashley Buccille Laura Bell Bundy Candace Cameron Bure Dora Madison Burge Courtney Taylor Burness Olivia Burnette Iris Burton Yasmine Al-Bustami Deborah Sale Butler Amanda Bynes Martha Byrne Darcy Rose Byrnes C Monica Calhoun Wendy Calio Dove Cameron Tisha Campbell-Martin Danielle Campbell Maia Campbell Camryn Juliana Cannarozzo Francesca Capaldi Carissa Capobianco Vivien Cardone Mary Carlisle Mandalynn Carlson Caitlin Carmichael Gabrielle Carmouche Jeanne Carpenter Sabrina Carpenter (wikipedia)

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Echt Foto-Karte mit eigenhändiger Unterschrift von der bedeutenden US FILM SCHAUSPIELERIN.  original hand signed autograph card with picture. Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years later, she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s.

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TEMPLE BLACK, Shirley:
Echt Foto-Karte mit eigenhändiger Unterschrift von der bedeutenden US FILM SCHAUSPIELERIN. original hand signed autograph card with picture. Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years later, she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s.

Phoenix-Antiquariat & Autographen, 1967. 9 x13 cm, 3 1/2 x 5"


tadelloser Zustand - mint condition. Shirley Temple Black[note 1] (April 23, 1928 – February 10, 2014) was an American actress, singer, dancer, businesswoman, and diplomat who was Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia, and also served as Chief of Protocol of the United State mehr lesen ...
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Schlagworte: Autogramm, autograph autographe, unterschrift, signature signiert signed original signe AK Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years later, she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Temple capitalized on licensed merchandise that featured her wholesome image; the merchandise included dolls, dishes, and clothing. Her box-office popularity waned as she reached adolescence.[1] She appeared in a few films of varying quality in her mid-to-late teens, and retired from films in 1950 at the age of 22.[2][3] In 1958, Temple returned to show business with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations. She made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot that was never released. She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, and the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969, when she was appointed to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, where she worked at the U.S Mission under Ambassador Charles W. Yost. In 1988, she published her autobiography, Child Star.[4] Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. She is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema. Contents Early years Temple in Glad Rags to Riches (1933) Shirley Temple was born on April 23, 1928, in Santa Monica, California, the third child of homemaker Gertrude Amelia Temple and bank employee George Francis Temple. The family was of Dutch, English, and German ancestry.[5][6] She had two brothers: John Stanley, and George Francis, Jr.[6][7][8] The family moved to Brentwood, Los Angeles.[9] Her mother encouraged her singing, dancing, and acting talents, and in September 1931 enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.[10][11][12] At about this time, Shirley's mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets.[13] While at the dance school, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, who was a casting director for Educational Pictures. Temple hid behind the piano while she was in the studio. Lamont took a liking to Temple, and invited her to audition; he signed her to a contract in 1932. Educational Pictures was going to launch its Baby Burlesks,[14][15][16][17] multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events by using preschool children in every role. Baby Burlesks is a series of one-reelers, and another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed with Temple playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family.[18] To underwrite production costs at Educational Pictures, she and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products.[19][20] She was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film (The Red-Haired Alibi) in 1932[21][22] and, in 1933, to Universal, Paramount, and Warner Bros. Pictures for various parts.[23][24] After Educational Pictures declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father managed to purchase her contract for just $25.[citation needed] Film career Temple's handprints and footprints at Grauman's Chinese Theater Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney was walking out of the viewing of Temple's last Frolics of Youth picture when he saw her dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a screen test for the movie Stand Up and Cheer! Temple arrived for the audition on December 7, 1933; she won the part and was signed to a $150-per-week contract that was guaranteed for two weeks by Fox Film Corporation. The role was a breakthrough performance for Temple. Her charm was evident to Fox executives, and she was ushered into corporate offices almost immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow, a song-and-dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach.[25] Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment.[26] In June, her success continued when she was loaned out to Paramount for Little Miss Marker.[27][28] After the success of her first three movies, Shirley's parents realized that their daughter was not being paid enough money. Her image also began to appear on numerous commercial products without her legal authorization and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, Temple's parents hired lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Temple's original contract for $150 per week is equivalent to $2,750 in 2015, adjusted for inflation. However, the economic value of $150 during the Great Depression was equal to $18,500. The subsequent salary increase to $1,000 weekly had the economic value of $123,000 and the bonus of $15,000 per movie (equal to $275,000 in 2015) was equivalent to $1.85 million in a decade when a quarter could buy a meal.[29] Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses.[30] On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released. The movie was the first feature film crafted specifically for Temple's talents and the first where her name appeared eponymously over the title.[31][32] Her signature song, "On the Good Ship Lollipop", was introduced in the film and sold 500,000 sheet-music copies. In February 1935, Temple became the first child star to be honored with a miniature Juvenile Oscar for her film accomplishments,[33][34][35][note 2] and she added her footprints and handprints to the forecourt at Grauman's Chinese Theatre a month later.[36] In 1935, Fox Films merged with Twentieth Century Pictures to become 20th Century Fox. Producer and studio head Darryl F. Zanuck focused his attention and resources upon cultivating Shirley's superstar status. She was said to be the studio's greatest asset. Nineteen writers, known as the Shirley Temple Story Development team, made 11 original stories and some adaptations of the classics for her.[37] In keeping with her star status, Winfield Sheehan built Temple a four-room bungalow at the studio with a garden, a picket fence, a tree with a swing, and a rabbit pen. The living room wall was painted with a mural depicting her as a fairy-tale princess wearing a golden star on her head. Under Zanuck, she was assigned a bodyguard, John Griffith, a childhood friend of Zanuck's,[38] and, at the end of 1935, Frances "Klammie" Klampt became her tutor at the studio.[39] Biographer Anne Edwards wrote about the tone and tenor of Shirley Temple films, "This was mid-Depression, and schemes proliferated for the care of the needy and the regeneration of the fallen. But they all required endless paperwork and demeaning, hours-long queues, at the end of which an exhausted, nettled social worker dealt with each person as a faceless number. Shirley offered a natural solution: to open one's heart."[40] Edwards pointed out that the characters created for Temple would change the lives of the cold, the hardened, and the criminal with positive results. Her films were seen as generating hope and optimism, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "It is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents, an American can go to a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles."[41][note 3] First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Shirley Temple, 1938 Most of the Shirley Temple films were inexpensively made at $200,000 or $300,000 apiece and were comedy-dramas with songs and dances added, sentimental and melodramatic situations, and bearing little production value. Her film titles are a clue to the way she was marketed—Curly Top and Dimples, and her "little" pictures such as The Little Colonel and The Littlest Rebel. Shirley often played a fixer-upper, a precocious Cupid, or the good fairy in these films, reuniting her estranged parents or smoothing out the wrinkles in the romances of young couples.[42] Elements of the traditional fairy tale were woven into her films: wholesome goodness triumphing over meanness and evil, for example, or wealth over poverty, marriage over divorce, or a booming economy over a depressed one.[43] As the girl matured into a pre-adolescent, the formula was altered slightly to encourage her naturalness, naïveté, and tomboyishness to come forth and shine while her infant innocence, which had served her well at six but was inappropriate for her tweens (or later childhood years), was toned down.[42] 1935–1937 In the contract they signed in July 1934, Temple's parents agreed to four films a year (rather than the three they wished). A succession of films followed: The Little Colonel, Our Little Girl, Curly Top (with the signature song "Animal Crackers in My Soup"), and The Littlest Rebel in 1935. Curly Top and The Littlest Rebel were named to Variety's list of top box office draws for 1935.[44] In 1936, Captain January, Poor Little Rich Girl, Dimples,[note 4] and Stowaway were released. Curly Top was Shirley's last film before the merger of 20th Century and Fox.[citation needed] Based on Temple's many screen successes, Zanuck increased budgets and production values for her films. By the end of 1935, her salary was $2,500 a week.[45] In 1937, John Ford was hired to direct the sepia-toned Wee Willie Winkie (Temple's own favorite) and an A-list cast was signed that included Victor McLaglen, C. Aubrey Smith and Cesar Romero.[46][47] Elaborate sets were built at the famed Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, for the production, with a rock feature at the heavily filmed location ranch eventually being named the Shirley Temple Rock. The film was a critical and commercial hit.[48] Subsequently Shirley Temple and Twentieth Century-Fox sued critic British writer/critic Graham Greene for libel and won. The settlement remained in trust for the girl in an English bank until she turned 21, when it was donated to charity and used to build a youth center in England.[49][50] Heidi was the only other Shirley Temple film released in 1937.[49] Midway through the shooting of the movie, the dream sequence was added to the script. There were reports that the little actress was behind the dream sequence and she had enthusiastically pushed for it, but in her autobiography, she vehemently denied it. Her contract gave neither her nor her parents any creative control over the movies she was in. She saw this as the collapse of any serious attempt by the studio to build upon the dramatic role from the previous movie Wee Willie Winkie.[51] 1938–1940 File:The Little Princess (1939) full.ogvPlay media Shirley Temple in The Little Princess, her first color film The Independent Theatre Owners Association paid for an advertisement in The Hollywood Reporter in May 1938 that included Temple on a list of actors who deserved their salaries while others' (including Katharine Hepburn and Joan Crawford) "box-office draw is nil".[52] That year, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Little Miss Broadway and Just Around the Corner were released. The latter two were panned by the critics, and Corner was the first of her films to show a slump in ticket sales.[53] The following year, Zanuck secured the rights to the children's novel A Little Princess, believing the book would be an ideal vehicle for the girl. He budgeted the film at $1.5 million (twice the amount of Corner) and chose it to be her first Technicolor feature. The Little Princess was a 1939 critical and commercial success, with Shirley's acting at its peak. Convinced that the girl would successfully move from child star to teenage actress, Zanuck declined a substantial offer from MGM to star her as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, and cast her instead in Susannah of the Mounties, her last money-maker for Twentieth Century Fox.[54][55] The film was successful, but because she made only two films in 1939, instead of three or four, Shirley dropped from number one box-office favorite in 1938 to number five in 1939.[56] In 1939, she was the subject of the Salvador Dalí painting Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time, and she was animated with Donald Duck in The Autograph Hound.[citation needed] In 1940, Lester Cowan, an independent film producer, bought F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story, "Babylon Revisited and Other Stories", for $80, which was a bargain. Fitzgerald thought his screenwriting days were over, and, with some hesitation, accepted Cowan's offer to write the screenplay titled "Cosmopolitan" based on the short story. After finishing the screenplay, Scott was told by Cowan that he would not do the film, unless Temple starred in the lead of the youngster Honoria. Fitzgerald objected, saying that at age 12, going on twenty, the actress was too worldly for the part and would detract from the aura of innocence otherwise framed by Honoria's character. After meeting Shirley in July, Fitzgerald changed his mind, and tried to persuade her mother to let her star in the film. However, her mother demurred. In any case, the Cowan project was shelved by the producer. Fitzgerald was later credited with the use of the original story for The Last Time I Saw Paris starring Elizabeth Taylor.[57] In 1940, Shirley starred in two flops at Twentieth Century Fox – The Blue Bird and Young People.[58][59] Her parents bought up the remainder of her contract, and sent her, at the age of 12, to Westlake School for Girls, an exclusive country day school in Los Angeles.[60] At the studio, the girl's bungalow was renovated, all traces of her tenure expunged, and the building was reassigned as an office.[59] 1941–1950 retirement After her departure from Twentieth Century-Fox,[note 5] Shirley was signed by MGM for her comeback; the studio made plans to team her with Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney for the Andy Hardy series. The idea was quickly abandoned, but MGM then teamed her with Garland and Rooney for the musical Babes on Broadway. Fearing that either of the latter two could easily upstage the girl, MGM replaced her with Virginia Weidler. As a result, her only film for Metro was Kathleen in 1941, a story about an unhappy teenager. The film was not a success, and her MGM contract was canceled after mutual consent. Miss Annie Rooney followed for United Artists in 1942, but was unsuccessful.[note 6] The actress retired from films for almost two years, in order to instead focus on school and activities.[61] In 1944, David O. Selznick signed Shirley Temple to a four-year contract. She appeared in two wartime hits: Since You Went Away, and I'll Be Seeing You. Selznick, however, became romantically involved with Jennifer Jones, and lost interest in developing Shirley's career. Temple was then lent to other studios. Kiss and Tell, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer,[note 7] and Fort Apache were her few good films at the time.[62] According to biographer Robert Windeler, her 1947–1949 films neither made nor lost money, but "had a cheapie B look about them and indifferent performances from her".[63] Selznick suggested that she move abroad, gain maturity as an actress, and even change her name. He warned her that she was typecast, and her career was in perilous straits.[63][64] After auditioning for, and losing, the role of Peter Pan on the Broadway stage in August 1950,[65] Temple took stock, and admitted that her recent movies had been poor fare. She announced her retirement from films on December 16, 1950.[63][66] Radio career Temple had her own radio series on CBS. Junior Miss debuted March 4, 1942, in which she played the title role. The series was based on stories by Sally Benson. Sponsored by Procter & Gamble, Junior Miss was directed by Gordon Hughes, with David Rose as musical director.[67] Merchandise and endorsements Shirley Temple leaving the White House offices with her mother and her bodyguard, John Griffith, 1938 Many Shirley Temple-inspired products were manufactured and released during the 1930s. Ideal Toy and Novelty Company in New York City negotiated a license for dolls with the company's first doll wearing the polka-dot dress from Stand Up and Cheer!. Shirley Temple dolls realized $45 million in sales before 1941.[68] A mug, a pitcher, and a cereal bowl in cobalt blue with a decal of the little actress were given away as a premium with Wheaties. Successful Shirley Temple items included a line of girls' dresses, accessories, soap, dishes, cutout books, sheet music, mirrors, paper tablets, and numerous other items. Before 1935 ended, the girl's income from licensed merchandise royalties would exceed $100,000, which doubled her income from her movies. In 1936, her income from royalties topped $200,000. She endorsed Postal Telegraph, Sperry Drifted Snow Flour, the Grunow Teledial radio, Quaker Puffed Wheat,[68] General Electric, and Packard automobiles.[69][note 8] Myths and rumors At the height of her popularity, Shirley Temple was often the subject of myths and rumors, with some being propagated by 20th Century Fox/Fox Films. Fox also publicized her as a natural talent with no formal acting or dance training. As a way of explaining how she knew stylized buck-and-wing dancing, she was enrolled for two weeks in the Elisa Ryan School of Dancing.[70] False claims circulated that Temple was not a child, but a 30-year-old dwarf, due in part to her stocky body type. The rumor was so prevalent, especially in Europe, that the Vatican dispatched Father Silvio Massante to investigate whether she was indeed a child. The fact that she never seemed to miss any teeth led some people to conclude that she had all her adult teeth. Temple was actually losing her teeth regularly through her days with 20th Century Fox, most notably during the sidewalk ceremony in front of Grauman's Theatre, where she took off her shoes and placed her bare feet in the cement to take attention away from her face. When acting, she wore dental plates and caps to hide the gaps in her teeth.[71] Another rumor said her teeth had been filed to make them appear like baby teeth.[72] A rumor about Temple's trademark hair was the idea that she wore a wig. On multiple occasions, fans yanked her hair to test the rumor. She later said she wished all she had to do was wear a wig. The nightly process she endured in the setting of her curls was tedious and grueling, with weekly vinegar rinses that burned her eyes.[73] Rumors spread that her hair color was not naturally blonde. During the making of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, news spread that she was going to do extended scenes without her trademark curls. During production, she also caught a cold, which caused her to miss a couple of days. As a result, a false report originated in Britain that all of her hair had been cut off.[72] Television career Temple in 1965 Between January 1958 and September 1961, Temple hosted and narrated a successful NBC television anthology series of fairy-tale adaptations called Shirley Temple's Storybook. Episodes were one hour each, and Temple acted in three of the sixteen episodes. Temple's son made his acting debut in the Christmas episode, "Mother Goose".[74][75] The series was popular but faced issues. The show lacked the special effects necessary for fairy tale dramatizations, sets were amateurish, and episodes were not telecast in a regular time-slot.[76] The show was reworked and released in color in September 1960 in a regular time-slot as The Shirley Temple Show.[77][78] It faced stiff competition from Maverick, Lassie, Dennis the Menace, the 1960 telecast of The Wizard of Oz, and the Walt Disney anthology television series however, and was canceled at season's end in September 1961.[79] Temple continued to work on television, making guest appearances on The Red Skelton Show, Sing Along with Mitch, and other shows.[77] In January 1965, she portrayed a social worker in a pilot called Go Fight City Hall that was never released.[80] In 1999, she hosted the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars awards show on CBS, and, in 2001, served as a consultant on an ABC-TV production of her autobiography, Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story.[81] Motivated by the popularity of Storybook and television broadcasts of Temple's films, the Ideal Toy Company released a new version of the Shirley Temple doll and Random House published three fairy tale anthologies under her name. 300,000 dolls were sold within six months and 225,000 books between October and December 1958. Other merchandise included handbags and hats, coloring books, a toy theater, and a recreation of the Baby Take a Bow polka-dot dress.[82] Life after Hollywood Temple became active in the Republican Party in California. In 1967, she ran unsuccessfully in a special election in California's 11th congressional district to fill the seat left vacant by the leukemia death of eight-term Republican J. Arthur Younger.[83][84] She ran in the open primary as a conservative Republican and came second with 34,521 votes (22.44%), behind Republican law school professor Pete McCloskey, who placed first in the primary with 52,882 votes (34.37%) and advanced to the general election with Democrat Roy A. Archibald, who finished fourth with 15,069 votes (9.79%), but advanced as the highest-placed Democratic candidate. In the general election, McCloskey was elected with 63,850 votes (57.2%) to Archibald's 43,759 votes (39.2%). Temple received 3,938 votes (3.53%) as an independent write-in.[85][86] Temple (far left) with First Lady Pat Nixon in Ghana, 1972 Temple was extensively involved with the Commonwealth Club of California, a public-affairs forum headquartered in San Francisco. She spoke at many meetings through the years and was president for a period in 1984.[87][88] Temple got her start in foreign service after her failed run for Congress in 1967 when Henry Kissinger overheard her talking about South West Africa at a party. He was surprised that she knew anything about it.[89] She was appointed as a delegate to the 24th United Nations General Assembly (September – December 1969) by President Richard M. Nixon[90][91][92] and United States Ambassador to Ghana (December 6, 1974 – July 13, 1976) by President Gerald R. Ford.[93] She was appointed first female Chief of Protocol of the United States (July 1, 1976 – January 21, 1977) and in charge of arrangements for President Jimmy Carter's inauguration and inaugural ball.[93][94] She served as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia (August 23, 1989 – July 12, 1992), having been appointed by President George H. W. Bush,[69] and was the first and only female to do so. Temple was a witness to two crucial moments in the history of Czechoslovakia's fight against communism. She was in Prague in August 1968, as a representative of the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies and going to meet with Czechoslovakian party leader Alexander Dubcek on the very day that Soviet-backed forces invaded the country. Dubcek fell out of favor with the Soviets after a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring. Temple, who was stranded at a hotel as the tanks rolled in, sought refuge on the roof of the hotel. She later reported that it was from here she saw an unarmed woman on the street gunned down by Soviet forces, a sight that stayed with her for the rest of her life.[95] Later, after she became ambassador to Czechoslovakia, she was present in the Velvet Revolution, which brought about the end of communism in Czechoslovakia. Temple openly sympathized with anti-communist dissidents and was ambassador when the US established formal diplomatic relations with the newly elected government led by Václav Havel. She took the unusual step of personally accompanying Havel on his first official visit to Washington, travelling on the same plane.[89] Temple served on boards of directors of large enterprises and organizations such as The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, Bank of America, Bank of California, BANCAL Tri-State, Fireman's Fund Insurance, United States Commission for UNESCO, United Nations Association and National Wildlife Federation.[96] Personal life Temple in 1990 In 1943, 15-year-old Temple met John Agar (1921–2002), an Army Air Corps sergeant, physical training instructor, and member of a Chicago meat-packing family.[97][98] She married him at age 17 on September 19, 1945 before 500 guests in an Episcopal ceremony at Wilshire Methodist Church in Los Angeles.[99][100][101] On January 30, 1948, Temple bore a daughter, Linda Susan.[99][102][103] Agar became an actor, and the couple made two films together: Fort Apache (1948, RKO) and Adventure in Baltimore (1949, RKO).[103] The marriage became troubled,[103][104] and Temple divorced Agar on December 5, 1949.[69][103] She was awarded custody of their daughter.[103][105][106] The divorce was finalized on December 5, 1950. In January 1950, Temple met Charles Alden Black, a World War II Navy intelligence officer and Silver Star recipient who was Assistant to the President of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.[107][108] Conservative and patrician, he was the son of James Black, president and later chairman of Pacific Gas and Electric, and reputedly one of the richest young men in California. Temple and Black were married in his parents' Del Monte, California home on December 16, 1950, before a small assembly of family and friends.[99][108][109] The family moved to Washington, D.C. when Black was recalled to the Navy at the outbreak of the Korean War.[110] On April 28, 1952, Temple gave birth to a son, Charles Alden Black, Jr., in Washington.[99][111][112] Following the war's end and Black's discharge from the Navy, the family returned to California in May 1953. Black managed television station KABC-TV in Los Angeles, and Temple became a homemaker. Their daughter, Lori, was born on April 9, 1954;[99] she went on to be a bassist for the rock band the Melvins. In September 1954, Charles Sr. became director of business operations for the Stanford Research Institute, and the family moved to Atherton, California.[113] The couple were married for 54 years until his death on August 4, 2005, at home in Woodside, California of complications from a bone marrow disease.[114] Cancer battle At age 44 in 1972, Temple was diagnosed with breast cancer. The tumor was removed and a modified radical mastectomy performed.[115] She announced the results of the operation on radio and television and in a February 1973 article for the magazine McCall's. Death Temple died at age 85 on February 10, 2014, at her home in Woodside, California.[116][117] The cause of death, according to her death certificate released on March 3, 2014, was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[118] Temple was a lifelong smoker but avoided displaying her habit in public because she did not want to set a bad example for her fans.[119] Awards, honors, and legacy Temple wearing the Kennedy Center Honors, 1998 Temple was the recipient of many awards and honors, including a special Juvenile Academy Award,[99] the Life Achievement Award from the American Center of Films for Children,[93] the National Board of Review Career Achievement Award,[120] Kennedy Center Honors,[121][122] and the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award.[123] On March 14, 1935, Shirley left her footprints and handprints in the wet cement at the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. She was the Grand Marshal of the New Year's Day Rose Parade in Pasadena, California three times in 1939, 1989, and 1999. On February 8, 1960, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In February 1980, Temple was honored by the Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, along with U.S. Senator Jake Garn, actor James Stewart, singer John Denver, and Tom Abraham, an American businessman who worked with immigrants seeking to become US citizens.[124] On September 11, 2002, a life-size bronze statue of the child Temple by sculptor Nijel Binns was erected on the Fox Studio lot.[125] Filmography Main article: Shirley Temple filmography See also Book: Shirley Temple Film portal List of former child actors from the United States List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees Notes While Temple occasionally used "Jane" as a middle name, her birth certificate reads "Shirley Temple". Her birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood shortly after she signed with Fox in 1934; her birth year was advanced from 1928 to 1929. Even her baby book was revised to support the 1929 date. She confirmed her true age when she was 21 (Burdick 5; Edwards 23n, 43n). Temple was presented with a full-sized Oscar in 1985 (Edwards 357). Shirley and her parents traveled to Washington, D.C. late in 1935 to meet Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor. The presidential couple invited the Temple family to a cook-out at their home, where Eleanor, bending over an outdoor grill, was hit smartly in the rear with a pebble from the slingshot that Shirley carried everywhere in her little lace purse (Edwards 81). In Dimples, Temple was upstaged for the first time in her film career by Frank Morgan, who played Professor Appleby with such zest as to render the child actress almost the amateur (Windeler 175). In 1941, Temple worked radio with four shows for Lux soap and a four-part Shirley Temple Time for Elgin. Of radio, she said, "It's adorable. I get a big thrill out of it, and I want to do as much radio work as I can." (Windeler 43) the teenager received her first on-screen kiss in the film (from Dickie Moore, on the cheek) (Edwards 136). When she took her first on-screen drink (and spat it out) in Bobby-Soxer, the Women's Christian Temperance Union protested that unthinking teenagers might do the same after seeing the teenage Shirley in the films (Life Staff 140). In the 1990s, audio recordings of the girl's film songs and videos of her films were released, but she received no royalties. Porcelain dolls were created by Elke Hutchens. The Danbury Mint released plates and figurines depicting her in her film roles, and, in 2000, a porcelain tea set (Burdick 136) References "Shirley Temple". biography.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012. Balio 227 Windeler 26 Child Star. McGraw-Hill. 1998. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Edwards 15, 17 Windeler 16 Edwards 15 Burdick 3 A look at the late Shirley Temple's very first home, yahoo.com; retrieved 2016-12-28. Edwards 29–30 Windeler 17 Burdick 6 Edwards 26 Edwards 31 Black 14 Edwards 31–34 Windeler 111 Windeler 113, 115, 122 Black 15 Edwards 36 Black 28 Edwards 37, 366 Edwards 267–269 Windeler 122 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988, 32–36. Barrios 421 Edwards 62 Windeler 122, 127 "Measuring Worth - Results". measuringworth.com. Retrieved May 10, 2018. Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, pp. 79–83. Edwards 67 Windeler 143 Black 98–101 Edwards 80 Windeler 27–28 Black 72 Edwards 74–75 Edwards 77 Edwards 78 Edwards 75 Edwards 75–76 Balio 227–228 Zipes 518 Balio 228 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, 130. Windeler 183 Edwards 104–105 Edwards 105, 363 Edwards 106 Windeler 35 Shirley Temple Black, Child Star: An Autobiography, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988, 192–193. "Box-office Busts/Boys and Girls". Life. pp. 13, 28. Retrieved September 8, 2012. Edwards 120–121 Edwards 122–123 Windeler 207 Edwards 124 E. Ray Canterbery and Thomas D. Birch, F. Scott Fitzgerald: Under the Influence, St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House, 2006, pp. 347–352. Burdick 268 Edwards 128 Windeler 38 Windeler 43–45 Windeler 49-52 Windeler 71 Edwards 206 Edwards 209 Black 479–481 "Shirley Temple in Title Role Of 'Junior Miss' Radio Drama". Harrisburg Telegraph. February 28, 1942. p. 22. Retrieved March 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read Black 85–86 Thomas; Scheftel Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 72–73, 183–184. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Lindeman, Edith. "The Real Miss Temple". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2014. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2. Edwards 231, 233, 393 Windeler 255 Burdick 112–113 Edwards 393 Burdick 115 Burdick 115–116 Edwards 235–236, 393 "Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 15, 2012. Edwards 233 Edwards 243ff Windeler 80ff Sean Howell (July 1, 2009). "Documentary salutes Pete McCloskey". The Almanac Online. Embarcadero Publishing Co. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Romney, Lee (June 11, 2012). "Between two public servants, Purple Heart-felt admiration". LATimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-05. "In Memoriam: Shirley Temple Black". commonwealthclub.org. Retrieved November 13, 2014. Joshua Keating, "Shirley Temple Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career: Including an Encounter with Frank Zappa", Slate, February 11, 2014. Edwards 356 Windeler 85 Aljean Harmetz, "Shirley Temple Black, Hollywood's Biggest Little Star, Dies at 85", The New York Times, February 11, 2014 Edwards 357 Windeler 105 Craig R. Whitney, "Prague Journal: Shirley Temple Black Unpacks a Bag of Memories", New York Times, September 11, 1989. Edwards 318, 356–357 Edwards 147 Windeler 53 Edwards 355 Edwards 169 Windeler 54 Black 419–421 Windeler 68 Edwards 199–200 Black 449 Edwards 199 Edwards 207 Windeler 72 Edwards 211 Edwards 215 Edwards 217 Windeler 72–73 Windeler 74 Dawicki 2005 "The Lives They Lived: Shirley Temple Black". Breast Cancer Consortium - Archives. 31 December 2014. "Hollywood star Shirley Temple dies". BBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2014. "Shirley Temple, former Hollywood child star, dies at 85". Reuters. 2014-02-11. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Dicker, Chris. Shirley Temple Biography: The 'Perfect Life' of the Child Star Shirley Temple During the Great Depression. Chris Dicker. "Obituary: Shirley Temple". BBC News. February 11, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. "Shirley Temple Black". The National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved February 12, 2014. "History of Past Honorees". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Burdick 136 "Shirley Temple Black: 2005 Life Achievement Recipient". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved February 12, 2014. "Tom Abraham to be honored by Freedoms Foundation Feb. 22", Canadian Record, February 14, 1980, p. 19 "The Shirley Temple Monument". Nijart. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Bibliography Balio, Tino (1995) [1993]. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20334-1. Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508810-6. Black, Shirley Temple (1989) [1988]. Child Star: An Autobiography. Warner Books, Inc. ISBN 978-0-446-35792-0. Burdick, Loraine (2003). The Shirley Temple Scrapbook. Jonathan David Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8246-0449-3. Dawicki, Shelley (August 10, 2005). "In Memoriam: Charles A. Black". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved February 10, 2011. Hatch, Kristen. Shirley Temple and the Performance of Girlhood (Rutgers University Press, 2015) x, 173 pp. Edwards, Anne (1988). Shirley Temple: American Princess. William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-688-06051-0. Life Staff (1946-09-16). "Tempest Over Temple: Shirley sips liquor and the W.C.T.U. protests". Life. 21 (12): 140. Thomas, Andy; Scheftel, Jeff (1996). Shirley Temple: The Biggest Little Star. Biography. A&E Television Networks. ISBN 978-0-7670-8495-6 Windeler, Robert (1992) [1978]. The Films of Shirley Temple. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-0725-5. Zipes, Jack, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-9653635-7-0. Further reading Basinger, Jeanine (1993). A Woman's View: How Hollywood Spoke to Women, 1930–1960. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 262ff. ISBN 978-0-394-56351-0. Best, Marc (1971). Those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen. South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co. pp. 251–255. Bogle, Donald (2001) [1974]. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 45–52. ISBN 978-0-8264-1267-6. Cook, James W.; Glickman, Lawrence B.; O'Malley, Michael (2008). The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future. University of Chicago Press. pp. 186ff. ISBN 978-0-226-11506-1. Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914–1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 227–228. Everett, Charles (2004) [1974]. "Shirley Temple and the House of Rockefeller". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media (2): 1, 17–20. Kasson, John F. The Little Girl Who Fought the Great Depression: Shirley Temple and 1930s America (2014) Excerpt Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, ed. (1996). Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York University Press. pp. 185–203. ISBN 978-0-8147-8217-0. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shirley Temple. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shirley Temple Wikinews has related news: Many SAG Awards presenters announced Official website Shirley Temple on IMDb Shirley Temple at the TCM Movie Database Edit this at Wikidata Shirley Temple at Find a Grave Photographs of Shirley Temple Wee Willie Winkie at the Iverson Movie Ranch Norwood, Arlisha. "Shirley Temple". National Women's History Museum. 2017. Awards and achievements Preceded by None Academy Juvenile Award 1934 Succeeded by Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney 1938 Preceded by James Garner Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award 2005 Succeeded by Julie Andrews Diplomatic posts Preceded by Fred L. Hadsel United States Ambassador to Ghana 1974–1976 Succeeded by Robert P. Smith Preceded by Henry E. Catto, Jr. Chief of Protocol of the United States 1976–1977 Succeeded by Evan Dobelle Preceded by Julian Niemczyk United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia 1989–1992 Succeeded by Adrian A. Basora vte Shirley Temple Filmography Songs "On the Good Ship Lollipop" "Animal Crackers in My Soup" "Goodnight My Love" Related John Agar (first husband) Charles Alden Black (second husband) Lori Black (daughter) Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time Shirley Temple's Storybook Shirley Temple (drink) Baby Burlesks vte Academy Honorary Award 1928–1950 Warner Bros. / Charlie Chaplin (1928) Walt Disney (1932) Shirley Temple (1934) D. W. Griffith (1935) The March of Time / W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen / W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art Film Library / Mack Sennett (1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney / Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney / Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner (1938) Douglas Fairbanks / Judy Garland / William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope / Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer / Noël Coward / Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1942) George Pal (1943) Bob Hope / Margaret O'Brien (1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell / Laurence Olivier / Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor / Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger / Monsieur Vincent / Sid Grauman / Adolph Zukor (1948) Jean Hersholt / Fred Astaire / Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer / George Murphy / The Walls of Malapaga (1950) 1951–1975 Gene Kelly / Rashomon (1951) Merian C. Cooper / Bob Hope / Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games (1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley / Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor (1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier (1958) Buster Keaton / Lee de Forest (1959) Gary Cooper / Stan Laurel / Hayley Mills (1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins (1961) William J. Tuttle (1964) Bob Hope (1965) Yakima Canutt / Y. Frank Freeman (1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant (1969) Lillian Gish / Orson Welles (1970) Charlie Chaplin (1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson (1972) Henri Langlois / Groucho Marx (1973) Howard Hawks / Jean Renoir (1974) Mary Pickford (1975) 1976–2000 Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz / Laurence Olivier / King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness (1979) Henry Fonda (1980) Barbara Stanwyck (1981) Mickey Rooney (1982) Hal Roach (1983) James Stewart / National Endowment for the Arts (1984) Paul Newman / Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy (1986) Eastman Kodak Company / National Film Board of Canada (1988) Akira Kurosawa (1989) Sophia Loren / Myrna Loy (1990) Satyajit Ray (1991) Federico Fellini (1992) Deborah Kerr (1993) Michelangelo Antonioni (1994) Kirk Douglas / Chuck Jones (1995) Michael Kidd (1996) Stanley Donen (1997) Elia Kazan (1998) Andrzej Wajda (1999) Jack Cardiff / Ernest Lehman (2000) 2001–present Sidney Poitier / Robert Redford (2001) Peter O'Toole (2002) Blake Edwards (2003) Sidney Lumet (2004) Robert Altman (2005) Ennio Morricone (2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall / Roger Corman / Gordon Willis (2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard / Eli Wallach (2010) James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker / Hal Needham / George Stevens Jr. (2012) Angela Lansbury / Steve Martin / Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière / Hayao Miyazaki / Maureen O'Hara (2014) Spike Lee / Gena Rowlands (2015) Jackie Chan / Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda (2017) Marvin Levy / Lalo Schifrin / Cicely Tyson (2018) vte Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award 1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman 2018: Alan Alda vte Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s) 1990 Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder 1991 Roy Acuff Betty Comden and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw 1992 Lionel Hampton Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor 1993 Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams 1994 Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger 1995 Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon 1996 Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief 1997 Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella 1998 Fred Ebb and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple Black 1999 Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder (wikipedia)

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Original Unterschrift des bekannten britischen Adligen und Politikers.  Original signature of the famous british politician.  In the late 1930s, he was along with NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN a leading advocate of appeasement of Germany, emphasizing the harshness of the Versailles Treaty and the dangers of Stalin's communism.

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Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian private secretary to Prime Minister David Lloyd George and British Ambassador to the United States:
Original Unterschrift des bekannten britischen Adligen und Politikers. Original signature of the famous british politician. In the late 1930s, he was along with NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN a leading advocate of appeasement of Germany, emphasizing the harshness of the Versailles Treaty and the dangers of Stalin's communism.

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tadelloser Zustand - mint condition. Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian, KT, CH, PC, DL (18 April 1882 – 12 December 1940), known as Philip Kerr until 1930, was a British politician, diplomat and newspaper editor. He was private secretary to Prime Minister David Lloyd George between 1916 and 1921. AK0010c
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Schlagworte: Autogramm, autograph autographe, unterschrift, signature signiert signed original signe, ALS LAS AK Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian, KT, CH, PC, DL (18 April 1882 – 12 December 1940), known as Philip Kerr until 1930, was a British politician, diplomat and newspaper editor. He was private secretary to Prime Minister David Lloyd George between 1916 and 1921. After succeeding a cousin in the marquessate in 1930, he held minor office from 1931 to 1932 in the National Government headed by Ramsay MacDonald. In the late 1930s, he was a leading advocate of appeasement of Germany, emphasizing the harshness of the Versailles Treaty and the dangers of Stalin's communism. From 1939 until his death in December 1940 he was Ambassador to the United States. He proved highly successful in winning America's support for the British war effort, most notably the Lend Lease program, which passed Congress after his death. Contents Background and education Kerr was born in London. He was the eldest son of Major-General Lord Ralph Kerr, who was the third son of John Kerr, 7th Marquess of Lothian. His mother was Lady Anne Fitzalan-Howard, the daughter of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk, by the Honourable Augusta Mary Minna Catherine Lyons, the daughter of Vice-Admiral Edmund Lyons, 1st Baron Lyons.[1][2][3] Kerr was a nephew of Edmund FitzAlan-Howard, 1st Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent,[4] and a great-nephew of Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons.[1][2][3] Via his descent from the Lyons family, Kerr was a relative of Maine Swete Osmond Walrond (1870–1927),[1] who was the Private Secretary to he Private Secretary to Lord Milner and a fellow member of Milner's Kindergarten. Kerr was educated at The Oratory School, Birmingham, Cardinal Newman's foundation, from 1892 to 1900,[5] and, subsequently, at New College, Oxford,[4] where he took a First in Modern History in 1904, subsequent to which, in 1904, he tried unsuccessfully for a Prize Fellowship of All Souls College, Oxford.[6] Public life Kerr served in the South African government from 1905 to 1910 and was a member of what was called "Milner's Kindergarten", a group of colonial officers who deemed themselves reformist rather than an actual political faction. They believed the colonies should have more say in the Commonwealth of Nations. By the standards of the era, they were liberal: most of them had an interest in elevating the status of white colonials, rejected independence, and had a paternalistic view of nonwhites. Kerr became more liberal on these issues than his counterparts by admiring Mohandas Gandhi and trying, if not entirely succeeding, to be more progressive than they were on racial issues.[7] He returned to England in 1910 to found and edit the Round Table Journal. In 1916, he was appointed David Lloyd George's private secretary[4] and was active in the Paris Peace Conference.[8] He was appointed a Companion of Honour (CH) in March 1920.[9] Kerr was a director of United Newspapers from 1921 to 1922[10] and secretary to the Rhodes Trust from 1925 to 1939. In March 1930 he succeeded his cousin in the marquessate and entered the House of Lords.[4] In May of the following year he was made a Deputy Lieutenant of Midlothian.[11] After the formation of the National Government in August 1931, Lothian was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster by Ramsay MacDonald.[12] In November of the same year he became Under-Secretary of State for India, a post he held until 1932, when he was replaced by Rab Butler.[4] Lothian was a key driving force behind the National Trust Act of 1937, using his position in the House of Lords to argue in favour of amendments to the trust.[13] Especially the ability of individuals to bequest country homes and estates to the trust allowing descendants to avoid the death duties. This led to a huge expansion of country homes being obtained by the National Trust known as the Country Houses Scheme.[14] On his death Lothian bequeathed his Norfolk country home Blickling Hall to the National Trust. Appeasement Lothian believed that Germany had been treated unfairly and harshly by the Treaty of Versailles and after its signing he became a steadfast advocate of revising the Treaty in Germany's favour throughout the 1920s until March 1939, a policy known as appeasement.[15] Claud Cockburn claimed Lothian was part of the Cliveden set of appeasers, and cartoonist David Low drew him as one of the "Shiver Sisters" dancing to Adolf Hitler's tune.[15] Speaking on 24 June 1933, at Gresham's School, Lothian said, "There probably never was a time of more uncertainty in the world than today. Every kind of political and economic philosophy is seeking approbation, and there is every kind of uncertainty about social and personal habits".[16] Lothian claimed that Nazi Germany did not want to "incorporate other races into itself.... [Nazism is a] national movement against internal disunity". He also claimed that the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was encircling Germany and that, deprived of an alliance with Austria-Hungary, the Polish corridor and many of its pre-1914 fortresses, Germany was weakened strategically and had good reason to pursue rearmament.[17] Nazi repression of domestic enemies, Jews and Social Democrats, was in Lothian's view "largely the reflex of the external persecution to which Germans have been subjected since the war".[18] He favoured a meeting between Hitler and the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, for British policy to be less pro-French and claimed that the League of Nations could not be restored unless Germany was given "a square deal in Central Europe".[19] In January 1935 and May 1937 he travelled to Germany to meet Hitler. On returning to Britain after the first meeting, Lothian proclaimed: "Germany does not want war and is prepared to renounce it absolutely... provided she is given real equality".[15] After Germany militarised the Rhineland in March 1936, Lothian famously remarked that it was no more than the Germans walking into "their own back garden" and that he would not support sanctions against it.[20] In May he wrote to Lloyd George: "If we join or drift into the anti-German group, we shall have world war. The only way to peace is justice for Germany [and] a German solution of the Austrian problem".[19] A month later, he wrote to Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden: "Personally I believe that, if we assist Germany to escape from encirclement to a position of balance in Europe, there is a good chance of the 25 years of peace of which Hitler spoke".[19] After his second visit to Hitler, Lothian wrote a memorandum to Neville Chamberlain: I am sure that the idea that by strengthening the military combination against Germany and continuing relentlessly the economic pressure against her, the régime in Germany can be moderated or upset is an entire mistake.... The German people are determined by some means or other to recover their natural rights and position in the world equal to that of the great powers. If they feel driven to use force in power-diplomacy or war, they will do so with a terrifying strength, decision and vehemence. Moreover, because they are now beginning to think that England is the barrier in the way, they are already playing with the idea that... they may have to look for support... to Italy and Japan, if they are to achieve their aims.[19] At the 1937 Imperial Conference, Lothian strongly urged the Dominion prime ministers to oppose Britain giving any commitments in Europe.[15] After Chamberlain signed the Munich Agreement with Hitler in 1938, Lothian expressed relief and said that Chamberlain had done "a marvellous job.... [he is] the only man who steadfastly refused to accept the view that Hitler and the Nazis were incorrigible and would understand nothing but the big stick".[21] However, he later changed his mind after Hitler's violation of the Munich Agreement by the occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. "Up until then it was possible", he wrote to a friend, Thomas William Lamont, on 29 March 1939, "to believe that Germany was only concerned with recovery of what might be called the normal rights of a great power, but it now seems clear that Hitler is in effect a fanatical gangster who will stop at nothing to beat down all possibility of resistance anywhere to his will".[22] Ambassador to the United States In September 1939, Lothian was appointed Ambassador to the United States,[23] a post he held until his death, the following year. He was sworn of the Privy Council in August 1939[24] and made a Knight of the Thistle in November 1940.[25] On 19 July 1940, Hitler in a speech put out peace feelers to Britain. Without seeking permission from the British government, Lothian asked Malcolm Lovell, an American Quaker in touch with the Germans, to inquire what terms were on offer to "a proud and unconquered nation". However, on 22 July, Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax delivered a speech rejecting the offer.[26] Harold Nicolson wrote in his diary, "Lothian claims that he knows the peace terms and they are most satisfactory. I am glad to say that Halifax pays no attention to this".[27] Lothian played a central role in enlisting American support for economic aid to the British war effort.[28] Upon his arrival in New York on 23 November 1940, he told the assembled journalists: "Well, boys, Britain's broke; it's your money we want".[29] The near-bankruptcy of the United Kingdom had been a closely guarded secret, and Lothian went well beyond Prime Minister Winston Churchill's instructions in divulging it. The remarks caused a sudden drop in confidence in sterling and were exploited by German propaganda. Lothian's statement helped force President Franklin Roosevelt's hand in responding to British appeals by proposing the Lend-Lease Program to aid Britain.[30] He initiated the joint Anglo-American military organisation of the Combined Chiefs of Staff.[31] Personal life The Kerr family were staunch members of the Roman Catholic Church. Kerr himself considered becoming a priest or monastic at times, but in adulthood he became disillusioned with the faith. His close friendship with Nancy Astor led to their both converting to the Church of Christ, Scientist together. Devoted to the very end to the religion to which he had converted, he died in Washington, D.C. in December 1940, aged 58, having refused medical treatment as a Christian Scientist. He never married and left no heirs, so the marquessate was inherited by his first cousin, Peter Kerr. He bequeathed Blickling Hall to the National Trust.[32] Styles of address 1882–1920: Mr Philip Henry Kerr 1920–1930: Mr Philip Henry Kerr CH 1930–1931: The Most Hon The Marquess of Lothian CH 1931–1939: The Most Hon The Marquess of Lothian CH DL 1939–1940: The Most Hon The Marquess of Lothian CH PC DL 1940: The Most Hon The Marquess of Lothian KT CH PC DL References Langford Vere, Oliver. History of the Island of Antigua, Vol. 2. Mitchell and Hughes, London, 1894. pp. 214–217. Jenkins, Brian. Lord Lyons: A Diplomat in an Age of Nationalism and War. McGill-Queen’s Press, 2014. "Richard Bickerton Pemell Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. thepeerage.com Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian J. R. M. Butler, Lord Lothian (London: Macmillan, 1960), pp. 2-4. Butler, p. 9. Butler, p. 175 and ch. X passim. D. Reynolds, 'Lord Lothian and Anglo-American Relations, 1939-1940' Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 73/2 1983 p. 3. "No. 31841". The London Gazette. 30 March 1920. p. 3872. Who's Who, 1935, London : A. & C. Black, 1935, p. 2030 "No. 33716". The London Gazette. 15 May 1931. p. 3147. "No. 33748". The London Gazette. 28 August 1931. p. 5616. National Trust, 'Our History' https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/lists/our-history-1884-1945 (accessed 17.03.18) 'Lothian's gift to the nation' https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/blickling-estate/features/lothians-gift-to-the-nation (accessed 17.03.18) Alex May, ‘Kerr, Philip Henry, eleventh marquess of Lothian (1882–1940)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011, accessed 15 July 2015. The Times, 26 June 1933, p. 8. Maurice Cowling, The Impact of Hitler. British Politics and British Policy 1933-1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), pp. 133-134. Butler, p. 206. Cowling, p. 134. Butler, p. 213. Butler, p. 226. Butler, p. 227. "No. 34727". The London Gazette. 7 November 1939. p. 7493. "No. 34653". The London Gazette. 11 August 1939. p. 5535. "No. 34989". The London Gazette. 12 November 1940. p. 6489. Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox': The Life of Lord Halifax (London: Phoenix, 1997), pp. 249-250. Roberts, p. 250. Priscilla Roberts, "Lord Lothian and the Atlantic world." Historian 66#1 (2004): 97-127. Butler, p. 307. Olson, Lynne, "Those Angry Days", Random House, 2013 Butler, p. 319. Butler, pp. 152-153. Further reading Bosco, A. and A. May, eds. The Round Table movement, the Empire/Commonwealth and British foreign policy (1997) · Butler, J.R.M. Lord Lothian, Philip Kerr, 1882–1940 (St. Martin's Press 1960), ASIN: B0007ITY2A Cowling, Maurice, The Impact of Hitler – British Policies and Policy 1933–1940, (Cambridge UP, 1975), p. 411, ISBN 0-521-20582-4 May, Alex. "Kerr, Philip Henry, eleventh marquess of Lothian (1882–1940)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011 accessed 30 Oct 2016 As you as you are you Reynolds, David. Lord Lothian and Anglo-American relations, 1939–1940 (1983) · Roberts, Priscilla. Lord Lothian and the Atlantic world. Historian 66.1 (2004): 97-127. Billington Jr, David P. Lothian Philip Kerr and the Quest for World Order (2006) Primary sources J. Pinder and A. Bosco, eds. Pacifism is not enough: collected lectures and speeches of Lord Lothian (1990), External links Round Table Movement – Past and Future, 1913 Papers relating to the application of the principle of DYARCHY T0 THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, 1920 Newspaper clippings about Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) Political offices Preceded by The Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster August–November 1931 Succeeded by J. C. C. Davidson Preceded by The Lord Snell Under-Secretary of State for India 1931–1932 Succeeded by Rab Butler Diplomatic posts Preceded by Sir Ronald Lindsay British Ambassador to the United States 1939–1940 Succeeded by The Viscount Halifax Peerage of Scotland Preceded by Robert Kerr Marquess of Lothian 1930–1940 Succeeded by Peter Kerr (wikipedia)

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