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Stolten, Detlef (Herausgeber); Scherer, Viktor (Herausgeber)

Efficient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants (Gebundene Ausgabe)

Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Juni 2011


619 S. - Sprache: Englisch - 250 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen - 246x180x35 mm

ISBN: 352733002X EAN: 9783527330027

Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology for a sustainable and low carbon economy. This book unites top academic and industry researchers in search for commercial concepts for CCS at coal power ploants. This reference focuses on power plant technology and ways to improve efficiency. It details the three principal ways of capturing the CO2 produced in power plants: oxyfuel combustion, postcombustion and precombustion, with the main part concentrating on the different approaches to removing carbon dioxide. Wtih an eye on safety, the authors explain how the three parts of the CCS chain work - capture, transport and storage - and how they can be performed safely. The result is specific insights for process engineers, chemists, physicists and materials engineers in their relevant fields, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the opportunities and implications of the other disciples.


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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Preface PART I: Introduction and Overview THE CASE FOR CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE Introduction Dilution versus Treatment Carbon Reservoirs Excell Carbon The Scale of Carbon Capture and Storage Storage Capacity Requirements Conclusion ADVANCED POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGY Introduction History of the Development of Power Plants - Corellation Beween Unit Size, Availability, and Efficiency Possibilities for Efficiency Increases in the Development of a Steam Power Plant CAPTURE OPTIONS FOR COAL POWER PLANTS Introduction Requirements on CO2 Capture and Compression CO2 Capture Routes Gas Separation Tasks and Methods Plant Concepts for Carbon Capture Carbon Dioxide Compression Conclusion LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR POWER PLANTS WITH CCS Introduction Life Cycle Assessment as an Assessment Method Review of Life Cycle Assessments Along the Whole CCS Chain Results Constraints of LCA Regarding an Assessment of CCS Comparison of Electricity from CCS and from Renewable Energies Conclusion on Needs for Action PART II: CO2 Scrubbing PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF ABSORPTION FOR CO2 CAPTURE TO COAL POWER PLANTS Gas Separation for CO2 Capture Process Engineering and Performance Physical Absorption Chemical Absorption Physical Properties Outlook CHEMICAL ABSORPTION MATERIALS FOR CO2 CAPTURE Introduction Alkanolamines Sodium and Potassium Carbonates Ammonia Amino Acid Salts Ionic Liquids Conclusion PHYSICAL ABSORPTION MATERIALS FOR CO2 CAPTURE Introduction Pre-Combustion Capture in IGCC Physical Absorption Materials and Processes Conclusions and Outlook CO2 REMOVAL IN COAL POWER PLANTS VIA POST-COMBUSTION WITH ABSORBENTS Tail-End CO2 Capture Demonstration Plants and Pilot Plants Conclusion CO2 REMOVAL IN COAL POWER PLANTS VIA PRE-COMBUSTION WITH PHYSICAL ABSORBTION Introduction The Sorption-Enhanced Water Gas Shift Process Sorption Processes and Material Development for SEWGS Conclusion and Outlook PART III: CO2 Removal with Cryogenic Air Separation CO2 CAPTURE VIA THE OXYFUEL PROCESS WITH CRYOGENIC AIR SEPARATION Introduction Flue Gas Recycle Combustion CO2 Purification and Capture Efficiency Current Developments PART IV: Separation with Membranes PHYSICS OF MEMBRANE SEPARATION OF CO2 Introduction Macroscopic Mass Transport Permeation Through Materials Membrane Geometries and Morphologies Fluid Dynamics and Modules Process Design Conclusion INORGANIC MEMBRANES FOR CO2 SEPARATION Introduction Membranes for Gas Separation Conclusion and Outlook POLYMER MEMBRANES FOR CO2 SEPARATION Introduction Polymer Membranes for CO2 Capture Theoretical Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment Conclusion CO2 SEPARATION VIA THE POST-COMBUSTION PROCESS WITH MEMBRANES IN COAL POWER PLANTS Introduction Process Boundary Conditions Membranes and Membrane Modeling Membrane Processes Economics of Membrane Processes for CO2 Capture Summary and Conclusions CO2 SEPARATION VIA THE OXYFUEL PROCESS WITH O2-TRANSPORT MEMBRANES IN COAL POWER PLANTS Introduction MIEC Membrane Operating Concepts Hard Coal Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Process Literature Review of Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Processes Towards Realization - Module Design Conclusion CO2 SEPARATION VIA PRE-COMBUSTION UTILIZING MEMBRANES IN COAL POWER PLANTS Introduction Process Conditions, Membrane Characteristics, Classification Numbers, Permeation Laws, and Water Gas Shift Pre-Combustion Concepts with Scrubbing Technologies Pre-Combustion Concepts with CO2-Selective Membranes Pre-Combustion Concepts with H2-Selective Membranes Conclusion PART V: Chemical Looping for CO2-Separation CHEMICAL LOOPING MATERIALS FOR CO2 SEPARATION Introduction Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) Chemical Looping Reforming Chemical Looping Gasification of Solid Fuels Oxygen Carrier Development Reactor Design and Operational Experience in Chemical Looping Combustors Reactivity and Solids Inventory Conclusion CHEMICAL LOOPING IN POWER PLANTS Introduction Chemical Looping Combustion Carbonate Looping Process Conclusion PART VI: Transportation and Storage of CO2 CO2 COMPRESSION CO2 Compression and Storage - Magnitude of the Issue CO2 Compression Energy Consumption - Heat Integration Heat Recovery Opportunities CO2 Purity and Pipeline Transport Issues CO2 Storage Development - Prudent Practices Public Policy and Long-Term Liability Conclusion CO2 TRANSPORT - THE MISSING LINK FOR CCS Introduction Experience with CO2 Transport CO2 Transport by Pipeline CO2 Transport by Ship Ships Compared with Pipelines CO2 Infrastructure Networks Regulation and Investment Decisions Strategic Planning for Pipelines STORAGE OF FOSSIL CARBON Introduction Summary of Storage Options Current Activites Utilization Versus Disposal Different Forms of Stored Carbon Storage Lifetime Storage Capacity Requirements Closing Natural Carbon Cycles The Role of Alkalinity Storage Safety Storage Accountability Conclusion

Über den Autor

Prof. Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Prof. Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal,Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. In 1998 he accepted the position of Director of the Institute of Materials and Process Technology at the Research Center Jülich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on fuel cells, implementing results from research in innovative products, procedures and processes in collaboration with industry, contributing towards bridging the gap between science and technology. His research activities are focused on energy process engineering of SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. electrochemistry, stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten represents Germany in the Executive Committee of the IEA Annex Advanced Fuel Cells and is on the advisory board of the journal Fuel Cells. Prof. Viktor Scherer is the Head of the Department of Energy Plant Technology at the University of Bochum, Germany. He received his doctorate from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technolgy (KIT), Germany. Prof. Scherer worked for more than 10 years in the power plant industry for ABB and Alstom. In 2000 he was appointed as a Professor in Energy Plant Technology at the University of Bochum. His research activities are focused on the analysis and description of chemically reacting flow fields in the energy related industry, like power plant, steel and cement industry. Another research aspect is the integration of membranes for carbon capture into Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. Prof. Scherer is a member of the scientific advisory board of the VGB Power Tech, the European Association of power and heat generation.

Kritikerstimmen

"The result is specific insights for process engineers, chemists, physicists and materials engineers in their relevant fields, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the opportunities and implications of the other disciples." (ETDE Energy database, 1 July 2011)


ISBN 3-527-33002-X

ISBN 978-3-527-33002-7

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