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Eclipse Phenomena in Astronomy (Kartoniert / Broschiert / Paperback)

Springer-Verlag GmbH, Juni 2012


Softcover Repri. - 272 S. - Sprache: Englisch - 19 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen, Bibliographie - 236x151x20 mm Book

ISBN: 3642864775 EAN: 9783642864773

Eclipses and problems related to them have been, from ancient times, one of the main interests not only of astronomers but indeed of all mankind. The appearance of eclipses, lunar as well as solar, excited the imagination of our ancestors and provoked their curiosity to explain their origin or to use them for the further investigation of celestial bodies. With the present development of astronomy the eclipse problems are not limited to the Sun and the Moon, as in the past, but have been progressively extended to the components of the solar system and to domains of radiations other than optical ones. Our intention is to give an account of all these problems in their theoretical and experimental form with some additions on their historical development. Those of our readers not interested in the historical side may feel at first inclined to ignore this part, but we are sure that eventually they will be sufficiently interested to repair this omission.


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Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Lunar Eclipses.- 1.1. Introduction to Lunar Eclipses.- 1.1.1. Geometrical Conditions of Lunar Eclipses.- 1.1.2. Computation of a Lunar Eclipse.- 1.1.3. Geographical Circumstances of Eclipses.- 1.1.4. Future Lunar Eclipses.- 1.1.5. The History of Lunar Eclipses.- 1.1.6. Lunar Eclipses in Chronology.- 1.2. Photometrical Theory of the Umbra.- 1.2.1. Eclipse Scene.- 1.2.2. General Photometrical Theory of the Umbra.- 1.2.3. Integration in the Solar Plane.- 1.2.4. General Transmission Coefficient.- 1.2.5. Molecular Scattering of Light.- 1.2.6. Aerosol Scattering.- 1.2.7. Astronomical Determinations.- 1.2.8. Terrestrial Method.- 1.2.9. Discussion of A.- 1.2.10. Attenuation of Light by Refraction.- 1.2.11. Auxiliary Shadow.- 1.2.12. The Normal Densities of the Shadow.- 1.2.13. Theory of Refraction and Air Mass.- 1.2.14. Confrontation of the Refraction Theory with Observations.- 1.2.15. Climatic Influences on the Refraction and Air Mass.- 1.2.16. Climatic Variations of the Shadow Density.- 1.2.17. High Absorbing Layers.- 1.2.18. Atmospheric Illumination of the Eclipsed Moon.- 1.2.19. Eclipse Phenomena in the Cislunar Space.- 1.2.20. Lunar Eclipses on the Moon.- 1.2.21. Other Photometrical Theories.- 1.2.22. Old and Classical Theories of Refraction and Air Mass.- 1.3. Photometry of Lunar Eclipses.- 1.3.1. Measurements of the Shadow Density.- 1.3.2. Visual Method.- 1.3.3. Photographic Method.- 1.3.4. Photoelectric Method.- 1.3.5. Comparison of the Theory with Observations.- 1.3.6. Atmospheric Ozone.- 1.3.7. High Absorbing Layer.- 1.3.8. The Behaviour of Meteoritic Particles in the Atmosphere.- 1.3.9. Tropospheric Influences.- 1.3.10. Meteorological Perturbations.- 1.3.11. Atmospheric Pollution of Planetary Extent.- 1.3.12. Global Intensity of the Eclipsed Moon.- 1.3.13. Surveyor III Eclipse Observation from the Moon.- 1.4. Lunar Luminescence.- 1.4.1. Simplified Theory of the Penumbra.- 1.4.2. Complete Theory of the Penumbra.- 1.4.3. Comparison with Observations.- 1.4.4. Interpretation of the Light Excess.- 1.4.5. Lunar Luminescence.- 1.4.6. Fluctuations of the Global Luminosity of the Moon.- 1.4.7. Recent Work on Lunar Luminescence.- 1.4.8. Brightness of Lunar Eclipses and Solar Activity.- 1.4.9. Danjon's Relation and the Solar Cycle.- 1.4.10. Problematic Variations of the Penumbral Density.- 1.5. Increase of the Shadow.- 1.5.1. Short History of the Shadow Increase.- 1.5.2. Maedler's Method.- 1.5.3. Hartmann's Method.- 1.5.4. Kosik's Method.- 1.5.5. Results on the Shadow Increase.- 1.5.6. Explanation of the Shadow Increase.- 1.5.7. Paetzold's Experiments.- 1.5.8. Connection between the Shadow Increase and the Meteoric Activity..- 1.5.9. Explanation of the Shadow Flattening.- 1.6. Thermal Phenomena during Lunar Eclipses.- 1.6.1. Brief Outline of Temperature Measurements.- 1.6.2. Theoretical Aspects of Surface Temperature Variations.- 1.6.3. Methods of Observing the Thermal Radiation of the Moon.- 1.6.4. Experimental Results.- 1.6.5. Hot Spots on the Moon.- 1.6.6. Lunar Eclipse at Microwaves.- 2. Eclipses of Artificial Earth Satellites.- 2.1. Preliminary Remarks.- 2.2. General Conditions of Visibility.- 2.3. Ephemeris of the Eclipse.- 2.4. Photometrical Theory of the Shadow.- 2.5. General Transmission Coefficient.- 2.6. Simplified Presentation of the Eclipse Theory.- 2.7. Eclipse Observed from the Satellite.- 2.8. Secondary Illuminations.- 2.9. Fesenkov's Treatment of the Eclipse Problem.- 2.10. Observing Methods Used for Passive Satellites.- 2.11. Work at the Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California.- 2.12. Work at Ondfejov Observatory on Echo-2 Eclipses.- 2.13. Work at Valensole Station.- 2.14. Active Satellites of SR Series.- 2.15. Eclipses of the Satellite SR-I.- 2.16. Work of Arcetri Group.- 2.17. Work of Slough Group.- 3. Twilight Phenomena.- 3.1. Different Components of the Twilight.- 3.2. Night Light Correction.- 3.3. Illumination of the Upper Atmosphere.- 3.4. Fundamental Problems of Twilight Phenomena.- 4. Occultations and Eclipses by Other Planets.- 4.1. General Remarks.- 4.2. Dioptrics of the Thin Planetary Atmosphere.- 4.3. Planetary Atmosphere from the Refraction Standpoint.- 4.4. Basic Equations for the Far Occultation.- 4.5. Theoretical Course of a Far Occultation.- 4.6. Occultation of Regulus by Venus, July 7, 1959.- 4.7. Occultation of ? Arietis by Jupiter, November 20, 1952.- 4.8. Near Occultation by the Planet.- 4.9. Eclipses of Phobos.- 4.10. Reduction of Eclipse Curves of Jovian Satellites.- 4.11. Eropkin's Eclipse Curves of Jovian Satellites.- 4.12. Frost Phenomena on Jovian Satellites during Their Eclipses.- 4.13. Terrestrial Occultation Observed from the Moon.- 5. Transits of Planets over the Sun.- 5.1. Introductory Remarks.- 5.2. Refraction in the Planetary Atmosphere.- 5.3. Refraction Image of the Sun.- 5.4. Discussion of Past Transits.- 5.5. Simplified Discussion of the Transit Phenomena.- 5.6. Lomonosov's Phenomenon.- 5.7. Extension of the Cusps of Venus.- 5.8. Explanations of the Cusps Extension.- 5.9. Edson's Work on Cusps Extension.- 5.10. New Investigations on Cusps Extension.- 6. Eclipse Phenomena in Radio Astronomy.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Occultation Scene.- 6.3. Occultations of Radio Sources by the Moon.- 6.4. Numerical Example.- 6.5. Occultation of Radio Source by Solar Corona.- 6.6. Modification of Light Intensity.- 6.7. Observations of Coronal Occultations.- 6.8. Occultation of the Mariner-IV Space Probe by Mars.- 6.9. Further Implications of the Mariner-IV Mission.- 6.10. Occultation of the Mariner-V Space Probe by Venus.- 7. Einstein's Deflection of Light.- 7.1. Einstein's Deflection of Light.- 7.2. Dioptrics of Einstein's Deflection.- 7.3. Photometry of Einstein's Deflection.- 7.4. Other Expression of Illumination.- 7.5. Illumination by Stellar Disk.- 7.6. Normalised Gravitational Occultation.- 7.7. Images of the Occulted Star.- 7.8. Tichov's Investigations.- 7.9. Refsdal's Investigation.- 7.10. Liebes' Investigations.- 7.11. Consequences of Einstein's Deflection in the Stellar Universe.- 7.12. Gravitational Passage or Occultation.- 7.13. History of Einstein's Photometrical Effect.


ISBN 3-642-86477-5

ISBN 978-3-642-86477-3

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