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Bernhard, David (Herausgeber)

Cigarette Smoke Toxicity Linking Individual Chemicals to Human Diseases (Gebundene Ausgabe)

Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Wiley-VCH, Februar 2011

367 S. - Sprache: Englisch - 27 schwarz-weiße und 2 farbige Abbildungen, 18 schwarz-weiße Tabellen - 247x179x25 mm

ISBN: 3527326812 EAN: 9783527326815

Smoking causes and contributes to a large number of human diseases, yet due to the large number of potentially hazardous compounds in cigarette smoke -- almost 5,000 chemicals have been identified, establishing the link between smoking and disease has often proved difficult. This unbiased and scientifically accurate overview of current knowledge begins with an overview of the chemical constituents in cigarette smoke, their fate in the human body, and their documented toxic effects on various cells and tissues. Recent results detailing the many ways components of cigarette smoke adversely affect human health are also presented, highlighting the role of smoking in cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious and other diseases. A final chapter discusses current strategies for the treatment and prevention of smoking-induced illness. Despite the obvious importance of the topic, this is the first comprehensive reference on tobacco smoke toxicity, making for essential reading for all toxicologists and healthcare professionals dealing with smoking-related diseases.

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Preface FROM DISCARDED LEAF TO GLOBAL SCOURGE - THE EXTRAORDINARY HISTORY OF THE ASCENT OF TOBACCO AND ITS MANY MODES OF CONSUMPTION Public Health Policy and Commercial Interest - An Uneasy Equilibrium Blessed Offspring of an Uncouth Land A Valuable Poison Sniffing, Chewing, and Smoking The Development of the Cigarette - A Perfect Nicotine Delivery System A Century of Growth An Epidemic of Disease Tobacco Manufactured Products - Multiple Routes to Addiction History Revisited or Lesson Learned PART I: Cigarette Smoking COMPONENTS OF A CIGARETTE Introduction Components of a Cigarette Generation of Cigarette Smoke Regulation and Future Perspectives of Cigarette Smoking THE PROCESS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING Introduction Bio-Complexity of Pathogenic Components of Smoking Multiplicity of Tobacco-Induced Diseases Topography of Cigarette Smoking How to Define a Human Smoker? Will there be Standardized Experimental Models to Study Biological Impact by Smoking? Summary SMOKE CHEMISTRY Introduction Cigarette Smoke Factors Influencing Smoke Chemistry EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE Active Smoking Secondhand Smoke Third-Hand Smoke Quantifying Tobacco Smoke Exposure Policy Measures for Reducing Tobacco-Related Exposure AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPRAISAL OF SMOKING-RELATED OUTCOMES Introduction Meta-Analytical Evidence on Active Smoking Cancer Cardiovascular Fractures Helicobacter pylori Eradication Fertility Ocular Damage Neurological Effects of Smoking Rheumatoid Arthritis Prenatal and Postnatal Effects of Smoking in Children Review of Meta-Analysis on Secondhand Smoke Mortality, Biological Aging, and Smoking Conclusion PART II: Linking Cigarette Smoke Chemicals to Human Diseases and Pathophysiology SMOKING AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Introduction Cardiovascular Diseases Smoking and CVDs Summary SMOKING AND CANCER Introduction Facts on Smoking and Cancer Cancer of the Lung Tobacco Use and Pancreatic Cancer Tobacco Smoke Combustion Products: Heterocyclic Amines Smoking, K-ras Mutations and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Interindividual Variation in the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis by Cigarette Smoke Summary SMOKING AND COPD AND OTHER RESPIRATORY DISEASES Introduction Pathogenesis of COPD Molecular Determinants of Protease Activity in COPD Molecular Determinants of Inflammation in COPD Molecular Determinants of Oxidative Stress in COPD Activation of Nrf2 by Cigarette Smoke Exacerbations of COPD Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Innate Immunity and COPD Exacerbations Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Asthma Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Other Respiratory Diseases Other Molecular Effects of Cigarette Smoke Exposure Effects of Individual Components of Cigarette Smoke in Lungs Concluding Remarks SMOKING, INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND INNATE IMMUNE (DYS)FUNCTION Smoking and Susceptibility to Bacterial Diseases The Needle in the Haystack Recognition of Infectious Agents by the Innate Immune Response The Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory System Tobacco Smoking and Netrophil Function Tobacco Smoking and Bacterial Virulence Nicotine and Cells of the Adaptive Immune System Conclusions SMOKING AND REPRODUCTION Introduction Smoking and Female Fertility Reproductive Consequences of Smoking for Men Consequences of in utero Tobacco Exposure in Later Life of Offspring SMOKING TOBACCO AND GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND DISEASES Introduction The Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver and Pancreas Summary SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH Periodontal Disease Dental Caries Oral Cancer Other Oral Conditions Other Dental Conditions Conclusion SMOKING AND EYE DISEASES Introduction Smoking and Cataract Smoking and Glaucoma Age-Related Macular Degeneration Association Between Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Smoking and Uveitis Ocular Ischemia Smoking and Diabetic Retinopathy Other Ocular Diseases Conclusions PART III: Prevention and Treatment of Smoking-Induced Diseases SMOKING: PREVENTION AND CESSATION Strategies for Smoking Prevention and Cessation Cessation and Risk Reversal: Health Benefits from Giving up Smoking Smoking Cessation and Gender Smoking Cessation and Genetics INTERFERING WITH SMOKING-INDUCED PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Introduction Cellular Redox Mechanisms Affected by Cigarette Smoke Perspectives for Prevention and Treatment of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pathophysiology in Different Tissues Dietary and Lifestyle Considerations as Related to Pathophysiology in Smokers Conclusing Remarks PART IV: Summary SUMMARY Cigarette Smoking and Human Diseases - A Critical Concluding Concluding Remarks to this Book

Über den Autor

Born in Wörgl, Austria, David Bernhard gained his masters and PhD degrees in microbiology at the University of Innsbruck, Faculty of Medicine, and the Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Austria. While working on his theses he researched the field of leukemia, concentrating on the mechanistic understanding of histone deacetylase inhibitors and natural compounds as anti-cancer agents. After a scientific stay abroad he served as a postdoc at the Institute of Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, by which time he was already focusing on the effects of cigarette smoke on the cardiovascular system. Following another postdoc period at the Institute for Pathophysiology of the Medical University in Innsbruck, where he also gained his lecturing qualification, he became head of the university?s cardiac surgery research laboratory, and expanded his research towards a more application-oriented field. Currently Dr. Bernhard is head of the cardiac surgery research laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, where his major fields of interest are the pathophysiological understanding of smoking and metal ion-induced atherosclerosis, as well as the search for natural compounds in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, while he has recently started work on tissue engineering projects in the cardiovascular setting.

ISBN 3-527-32681-2

ISBN 978-3-527-32681-5

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